Briefly

Pale balloon, anatomy and function

Pale balloon, anatomy and function

The pale balloon It is a fundamental structure in our brain. Be part of the basal ganglia, a group of nuclei that interconnect with each other on both sides of the thalamus and that have many functions, such as regulate and control the movement. Today we will talk about this interesting region that inhabits the brain and thanks to which, we can move naturally.

Content

  • 1 What is the pale balloon?
  • 2 Anatomy of the pale globe
  • 3 Functions of the pale globe
  • 4 Pale Balloon Disorders

What is the pale balloon?

The pale balloon It is a brain region that lies deep in the anterior brain. This structure is also often called paleoestriate, is part of telencephalon, although it is closely related to the diencephalon, regions that are part of extrapyramidal motor system, a system whose function is that of regulate involuntary movements.

The pale globe is part of the Basal ganglia, next to the striatum, composed of the caudate nucleus and the putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the black substance and the subthalamic nucleus. This structure maintains connections with structures such as the thalamus or the black substance. In addition, it is considered that the pale balloon forms the lenticular nucleus next to the putamen, sending nervous information from the striated body until the thalamus and whose functions translate into motor regulation, the achievement of automatic movements, the Postural control, the procedural learning wave motivation.

Pale Balloon Anatomy

The pale globe is a sphere-shaped structure that has a whitish color and is divided into two adjacent segments:

  • The internal pale balloon -> whose projections arrive from the striated body, composed of caudate nucleus and the putamen and go to him thalamus, structure that in turn sends information to prefrontal cortex.
  • The pale outer globe -> Connected to subthalamic core, it also receives entries from the striatum, although to a lesser extent than the internal pale globe.

This area consists of a mass of gray matter composed of neuronal somas, dendrites without myelin and neuroglia, and its name refers to the pale color that myelinated axons that pass through this structure give it, acquiring the appearance of the white substance. The pale globe contains many gabaergic neurons, especially in the external region that acts next to the subthalamic nucleus.

Functions of the pale globe

The main function of the pale globe is the regulation of voluntary movements that both people and animals emit. The pale balloon gets inhibit excitation of cerebellum to create balanced and stable movements through this game of excitement and inhibition between the two structures. Like the rest of the basal ganglia, this structure acts involuntarily and is involved in processes that we manage to achieve in a non-conscious way such as walking or maintaining posture and balance.

Pale Balloon Disorders

Due to its function in the motion regulation, a disorder or problem that affects this structure will consequently cause movement difficulties. This can result in a slowing of this movement or an appearance of involuntary movements, such as tremor.

Sometimes, this structure is deliberately injured in order to calm the involuntary tremors that people may suffer. This occurs, specifically, during the disease of Parkinson. This disease affects the dopaminergic nerve cells causing damage to the basal ganglia, including the pale balloon. That's when they occur involuntary movements like these tremors, in addition to losing precision and coordination in voluntary movements. A deficit of voluntary movement control, as well as a slowing down of the movement, is usually a direct cause of damage to the pale globe. In Parkinson's disease the pale globe is hyperactive, as a result, people have a lack of muscle control in which the muscles become stiff, in addition to trembling. It is then that an intervention is usually indicated in which this structure would be damaged to reduce its hyperactivity.

During the disease of Huntington, an inherited disease that causes damage to brain neurons, the pale globe also presents this neuronal loss causing abnormal and uncontrollable movements in different regions of the body, showing, once again, the important role that this small, balloon-shaped structure, It has to get us to establish adequate movement and therefore better survival.