We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
As a search on Frontiers in Psychology shows, there a different articles and research topics about the topic of being an expert.
But is there any literature or research about the effects of being an expertise on the mental health of a person or the state of self-actualization ?
The psychological, economic, and social costs of air pollution
Air pollution’s destructive consequences go beyond breathing. Research links it to anxiety, dementia, missed work, criminal behavior, and much more.
Air pollution’s toll on human health is well documented. It is the leading cause of mortality in India, contributing to the death of more than 1.6 million people annually. It is responsible for 1.1 million premature deaths each year in China. And in the U.S., about 111 million Americans — 35% of the population — live in counties with unhealthy air, which makes them more susceptible to lung cancer, heart attacks, and strokes.
Now, a new, large-scale review demonstrates that air pollution is not only detrimental to people’s physiological health, but also their psychological health. The review, conducted by MIT Sloan assistant professor Jackson Lu systematically examines the psychological, economic, and social effects of air pollution. His findings appear in the April edition of “Current Opinion in Psychology.”
“Many of us tend to think about air pollution in terms of its harm on the environment and human health, but it also negatively impacts our psychological health and behavior,” Lu said.
In a review of 178 research articles, Lu found evidence that points to the destructive consequences of air pollution. Across the board, air pollution — a mixture of particulate matter, metals, and other gases and compounds — causes decreases in happiness and increases in depression. Cognitively, it impairs functioning and decision-making. Economically, it hurts work productivity. And socially, it exacerbates criminal behavior.
Other research shows that air pollution negatively predicts people’s life satisfaction and well-being. This effect has been observed in countries around the world, including Australia, Canada, China, the U.S., and Europe. Air pollution is also associated with elevated anxiety and increased mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, and autism. Air pollution may be also a risk factor for substance abuse, self-harming behaviors, and suicide.
“Physiologically, exposure to air pollutants can trigger anxiety by increasing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation,” Lu said. “Psychologically, the experience of air pollution can trigger existential anxiety about one’s health and future.”
In addition, air pollution harms cognitive functioning across all life stages, from prenatal development, to childhood, to young adulthood, and even into old age. One study, which looked at students in China taking multiple standardized math and verbal tests, found that contemporaneous exposure to air pollutants adversely predicted performance. Exposure during these exams also negatively predicted post-secondary educational attainment and earnings over time.
Air pollution may also lead to cognitive disorders, such as dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Research has shown that people living in places with excessive amounts of PM2.5 — a microscopic pollutant commonly caused by burning from power plants, car exhaust, and wildfires — have a heightened risk for dementia by 92%.
Psychologically, the experience of air pollution can trigger existential anxiety about one’s health and future.
Mental Health and Stress-Related Disorders
Mental illness is one of the major causes of suffering in the United States, and extreme weather events can affect mental health in several ways. Following disasters, mental health problems increase, both among people with no history of mental illness, and those at risk &ndash a phenomenon known as &ldquocommon reactions to abnormal events.&rdquo These reactions may be short-lived or, in some cases, long-lasting. For example, research demonstrated high levels of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder among people affected by Hurricane Katrina, and similar observations have followed floods and heat waves. Some evidence suggests wildfires have similar effects. All of these events are increasingly fueled by climate change. Other health consequences of intensely stressful exposures are also a concern, including pre-term birth, low birth weight, and maternal complications.
In addition, some patients with mental illness are especially susceptible to heat. Suicide rates vary with weather, rising with high temperatures, suggesting potential impacts from climate change on depression and other mental illnesses. Dementia is a risk factor for hospitalization and death during heat waves. Patients with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia, are at risk during hot weather because their medications may interfere with temperature regulation or even directly cause hyperthermia. Additional potential mental health impacts, less well understood, include the possible distress associated with environmental degradation and displacement and the anxiety and despair that knowledge of climate change might elicit in some people.
One of the major sleep disorders that people face is insomnia. Insomnia is an inability to get the amount of sleep needed to function efficiently during the daytime. About 1 in 3 people in the U.S. report difficulty sleeping at least one night per week. Insomnia is caused by difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep or waking up too early in the morning.
Insomnia is rarely an isolated medical or mental illness but rather a symptom of another illness to be investigated by a person and their medical doctors. In other people, insomnia can be a result of a person&rsquos lifestyle or work schedule.
Sometimes insomnia or other sleep problems can be caused by sleep apnea, which is a separate medical condition that affects a person&rsquos ability to breathe while sleeping. A doctor or sleep specialist can diagnose sleep apnea and provide treatment to improve sleep.
Short-term insomnia is very common and has many causes such as stress, travel or other life events. It can generally be relieved by simple sleep hygiene interventions such as exercise, a hot bath, warm milk or changing your bedroom environment. Long-term insomnia lasts for more than three weeks and should be investigated by a physician with a potential referral to a sleep disorder specialist, which includes psychiatrists, neurologists and pulmonologists who have expertise in sleep disorders.
Breathing practice, also known as 𠇍iaphragmatic breathing” or p breathing,” is defined as an efficient integrative body–mind training for dealing with stress and psychosomatic conditions. Diaphragmatic breathing involves contraction of the diaphragm, expansion of the belly, and deepening of inhalation and exhalation, which consequently decreases the respiration frequency and maximizes the amount of blood gases. Benefits of diaphragmatic breathing have been investigated in association with meditation and ancient eastern religions (such as Buddhism) and martial arts (Lehrer et al., 2010). It is considered to be a core component of yoga and Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) and contributes to emotional balance and social adaptation (Sargunaraj et al., 1996 Beauchaine, 2001 Porges, 2001), as well as special rhythmic movements and positions.
Psychological studies have revealed breathing practice to be an effective non-pharmacological intervention for emotion enhancement (Stromberg et al., 2015), including a reduction in anxiety, depression, and stress (Brown and Gerbarg, 2005a,b Anju et al., 2015). A 1-day breathing exercise was found to relieve the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization induced by job burnout (Salyers et al., 2011). A 30-session intervention with a daily duration of 5 min can significantly decrease the anxiety of pregnant women experiencing preterm labor (Chang et al., 2009). In addition, similar effects on anxiety was observed in a 3-days intervention study, where breathing practices were performed 3 times per day (Yu and Song, 2010). Further evidence from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) suggested that a 7-days intensive residential yoga program that included pranayama (breathing exercises) reduced anxiety and depression in patients with chronic low back pain (Tekur et al., 2012). Supportive evidence has also come from a line of RCTs of TCC and yoga (Benson, 1996 Telles et al., 2000 Oakley and Evans, 2014). Currently, breathing practice is widely applied in clinical treatments for mental conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Sahar et al., 2001 Descilo et al., 2010 Goldin and Gross, 2010), motion disorders (Russell et al., 2014), phobias (Friedman and Thayer, 1998), and other stress-related emotional disorders.
Earlier studies have observed an attention/vigilance impairment related to breathing dysfunction in dementia and sleep-disordered breathing in individuals across all ages (Chervin et al., 2006). More recent studies have suggested that there is a bidirectional association between breathing and attention. A growing number of clinical studies have demonstrated that breathing-including meditation may represent a new non-pharmacological approach for improving specific aspects of attention. Mindfulness, for instance, contributes to alerting and orienting, but conflicts with monitoring. In addition, an 8-weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction yielded a larger effect than a 1-month intensive mindfulness retreat, on the attention altering component (Jha et al., 2007). Focused attention meditation is a Buddhist practice, whereby selective attention and the sensation of respiration must be sustained (Gunaratana, 1993/2002 Gyatso and Jinpa, 1995). Three months of intensive focused attention meditation have been found to reduce variability in attentional processing of target tones and to enhance attentional task performance (Lutz et al., 2009). Some studies have investigated cognitive and emotional improvement simultaneously, and have indicated that a brief mental training could enhance sustained attention as well as reduce fatigue and anxiety (Zeidan et al., 2010). Some researchers believe that the relaxation generated by peaceful breathing helped to manage inattention symptoms among children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Amon and Campbell, 2008). These results led to the development of a breath-controlled biofeedback game called ChillFish, which improved children’s sustained attention and relaxation levels (Sonne and Jensen, 2016).
Studies orientated toward the physiological mechanism of breathing intervention effects have indicated a shared physiological basis underlying breathing, emotion, and cognition, involving the autonomic nervous system. Physiological evidence has indicated that even a single breathing practice significantly reduces blood pressure, increases heart rate variability (HRV) (Wang et al., 2010 Lehrer and Gevirtz, 2014 Wei et al., 2016) and oxygenation (Bernardi et al., 1998), enhances pulmonary function (Shaw et al., 2010), and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory muscle strength (Shaw et al., 2010). A daily 15-min breathing training for 2 weeks significantly promoted mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate (Bernardi et al., 1998). Breathing with a certain frequency and amplitude was found to relieve clinical symptoms in patients of all ages with sleep-disordered breathing (Chervin et al., 2006). Evidence from yoga practice also confirms a reduction of sympathetic and an increase of parasympathetic nervous system activity (Vempati and Telles, 2002 Raghuraj and Telles, 2003). Cardiac vagal tone is assumed to form part of the shared physiological basis of breathing and emotion. It is influenced by breathing and is also integral to vagal nerve stimulation that is closely associated with the physiological basis of emotion, including emotional regulation, psychological adaptation (Sargunaraj et al., 1996 Beauchaine, 2001), emotional reactivity and expression, empathic responses, and attachment (Porges, 2001). Moreover, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is observed in adults with anxiety (Kawachi et al., 1995 Thayer et al., 1996 Friedman and Thayer, 1998), depression (Carney et al., 1995 Lehofer et al., 1997), PTSD (Sahar et al., 2001), panic disorder (Friedman and Thayer, 1998), and other stress-related mental and physical disorders (Benson, 1996 Becker, 2000 Bazhenova et al., 2001 Jacobs, 2001).
The shared physiological basis of attention and breathing can be detected in part in the autonomic nervous system of patients with ADHD (Beauchaine, 2001), but more evidence is provided by electroencephalographic (EEG) studies and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies (Lutz et al., 2004). For instance, EEG studies have suggested that regular breathing practice during yoga and meditation can increase β-activity in the left frontal, midline, and occipital brain regions (Bhatia et al., 2003 Snayder et al., 2006), which has been associated with enhanced cognitive performance, such as during attention, memory, and executive functions (Freeman et al., 1999). In addition, fMRI studies have also detected a significant increase in activation in the bilateral inferior frontal and temporal regions under meditation, as compared to a relaxation condition. Such studies implicated the right inferior frontal cortex/right insula and right middle/superior temporal cortex as the regions involved in meditation (Hernández et al., 2015).
Cortisol, a steroid hormone of the glucocorticoid class, is released in response to stress. Cortisol release is associated with depression, anxiety, and other negative emotions. The underlying mechanism may be grounded in its sensitivity for the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitaryrenal (HPA) axis (Clow et al., 2010), which regulates metabolism, immunity, and some mental processing, including memories and emotional appraisal (Pariante and Lightman, 2008). Plasma cortisol levels reflect changes in the activation of the HPA axis with changes in CO2 inhalation (Argyropoulos et al., 2002), while salivary cortisol levels have been associated with fast withdrawal of attention in response to angry faces (van Honk et al., 1998). However, the associations between breathing, emotion, attention, and cortisol have not been tested together.
Although breathing practice offers an integrated benefit for mental and physical health, the results of studies on this topic are inconsistent, because of methodological limitations in the experimental design, a lack of measurable breathing feedback, and limited sample sizes. Most cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have focused on how breathing treatment benefits individuals with particular conditions, such as women during pregnancy (Schmidt et al., 2000 Booth et al., 2014) and clerks experiencing job burnout (Salyers et al., 2011), rather than on its health promotion function in a healthy population. Most importantly, most studies have investigated physiological effects, emotional benefits, and cognitive benefits separately, which prevents an understanding of the possible mental and physiological mechanisms of breathing in terms of its potential benefit for both mental and physical health.
The present study was a pilot RCT with visible feedback breathing recordings used to monitor the breathing performance overall and to evaluate the outcomes of breathing practice. The aims of this study were to investigate the mental benefits and the hormone levels in healthy volunteers who completed an 8-weeks breathing training scheme. An emotional self-reporting scale and cognitive tests were used to measure mental benefits. Additionally, cortisol a major HPA-axis-related stress hormone in humans (Matousek et al., 2010), was also measured to examine whether the breathing practice could be a buffer for modulating stress levels in the working population. We hypothesized that an 8-weeks breathing training course would significantly improve cognitive performance, and reduce negative affect (NA) and physiological stress.
Pandemic's mental health burden heaviest among young adults
In a recent survey, almost two-thirds of 18- to-24-year-olds reported symptoms.
COVID-19 pandemic’s mental health toll on young adults
The pandemic has closed schools, offices, sports arenas and limited social interaction for millions of people -- perhaps an even bigger struggle for young people more used to being active.
In a recent survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 63% of 18- to-24-year-olds reported symptoms of anxiety or depression, with 25% reporting increased substance use to deal with that stress and 25% saying they'd seriously considered suicide.
"The mental health impact of the pandemic is much larger on younger adults," said Dr. Shekhar Saxena of The Harvard School of Public Health and a professor for the practice of global mental health courts. "The figures that we have from the U.S. suggest that almost two-thirds of the young adults have some symptoms of anxiety or depression or other psychological problems."
Even when the COVID-19 crisis is over, Saxena explained that 10% of these adults will have long-lasting effects from mental health issues they're currently dealing with.
"About one-third might actually be having a problem that is severe enough for their life to be impacted in terms of their work performance and education," Saxena said. "This could actually pose a much larger burden in terms of health and disability."
Saxena added: "Many people are losing jobs. Some people are earning much less income than earlier. There is the uncertainty of where and what tomorrow will bring, which is faced much more by younger adults than by middle-aged or older adults, because this is the time for change in their lives."
The Healthy Minds Network conducted a survey and found that 80% of college students reported that COVID-19 had negatively impacted their mental health.
Experts fear many of those affected are not seeking the professional help they need, and Dr. Sarah Lipson, an assistant professor in the Department of Health Law Policy and Management at the Boston University School of Public Health and co-principal investigator of the Healthy Minds Network study, told ABC News experts are trying to quantify that.
"Students of color and low-income students are significantly less likely to seek care when they're experiencing mental health problems due to cost and availability," Lipson said. "Those are also the same students who are less likely to persist in higher education and graduate. There's sort of this intersection of the outcomes that we care so much about for young adults in that regard."
The rise of anxiety and depression
Saxena explained how the pandemic is a "perfect storm" to give rise to uncertainty, stemming from anxiety and loss, possibly leading to depression. Many young adults have lost quite a bit, especially when it comes to educational and professional opportunities.
"For the people between the ages of 21 and 25, this is a time of expansion in their life, with new connections and new things," Lipson said. "That is all being halted. I think this is a hard time for parts of life to stand still when there is normally just this fast-paced developmental time where so much is happening socially and professionally."
"The job market that young people are entering into," she added, "is very unpredictable, which I think creates a lot of a lot of stress."
Loneliness and social isolation
Mental Health America found that between April and September of last year 70% of people reported that loneliness or isolation was the top contributing factor to mental health issues. Isolation is the actual separation from others, and loneliness is the accompanying feeling.
"One can be lonely in spite of being with others. Both loneliness and self isolation give rise to major health impacts, and the communication around the need for distancing in the pandemic has been very unfortunate," Saxena said.
He said social distancing really should have been called physical distancing, separate from social connectedness.
"People are forced to do that because there are rules put in place," he added. "However, the attempt should be to be as connected as possible."
Jordan Corcoran, an advocate and founder of Listen Lucy, a mental health organization, was diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder at 19, and, now 33, she described the pandemic as very challenging.
"I feel like I'm working every minute of the day to keep my anxiety at bay," Corcoran said. "Isolation is a major part of dealing with mental illness."
Even after getting help and choosing to advocate for others who struggle with mental health disorders, Corcoran still faces her own battles each and every day.
"The world keeps putting all these obstacles in front of me. I don't know how much longer I can do this," Corcoran explained. "I check in with my mental health every day. It's part of my survival as part of my journey."
What can be done
Saxena said workplace stress -- employees being overworked, which may or may not be tied to company layoffs or restructuring -- is a big contributor, and employers can step in to help.
"They should be aware that people are going through stress and are potentially going into mental disorders," he said. "All of that should be covered as a part of the benefit package as much as any physical problem. If you're an employer and your employee needs help in terms of counseling and psychiatric help, they should actually be encouraged, supported and financed in doing that. That is a best practice that is more needed now than ever."
Lipson also said she believes that college campuses need to offer more mental health resources and require training for faculty members so they can better understand potential mental health problems among students.
"I think schools need to think about an expansion of a campus mental health system to include a broader array of resources, and investing in those, as opposed to just investing in more and more staff in a counseling center," Lipson said. "It's an imbalance that is going to continue to exist and be amplified in terms of the number of students needing services and the availability of counselors."
Top 10 Strange And Scary Psychological Effects
Unsettling as it may be, every person is controlled by psychological effects. Some are common, while others are thankfully rare. Either way, many of these complex processes are strong enough to override logic and empathy.
There are deep roots to why sexists rarely change or certain strangers win trust more easily. As with all mental arenas, things can also get deliciously weird. Science has discovered that humans can psychologically hibernate, that a person&rsquos dark side has a number, and that the trauma of Santa Claus destroys trust in parents.
Developmental Delays in Children
Anemia in pregnancy has numerous health consequences for the baby including increased risk of:
- Severe illnesses
- Decreased cognitive performance
- Spinal and brain defects
Pregnant women who are anemic in pregnancy also have an increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and low birth weight, according to Pan American Health Organization.
Children who are iron deficient may be impaired in their ability to function properly. Iron deficiency, left untreated, can affect your child's growth and development. However, most signs and symptoms of low iron levels in children don't appear until iron deficiency anemia occurs. Talk to your doctor if your child shows the following signs of iron deficiency such as:
Epilepsy and Cognitive Disorders
- The most frequent cognitive complaints in adults are feeling slowed down mentally, memory impairment, and attention problems.
- Memory problems are an important feature of seizures arising from one part of the brain called the temporal lobe. Short-term memory problems are seen most often.
- Dementia has also been diagnosed in some people with poorly controlled epilepsy.
- Medications can also affect memory.
What groups have higher rates of heart disease from mental health disorders?
Specific populations, such as the following, show higher rates of heart disease as a result of pre-existing mental health disorders:
Veterans. Studies found that veterans are at a higher risk for heart disease, mainly due to PTSD as a result of combat. 22-26
Women. Studies exclusively focused on women found that PTSD and depression may have damaging effects on physical health, particularly with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD)&ndashrelated morbidity and mortality. 27,28
Couples with someone who has PTSD. Comparative studies found that couples where one or both partners had PTSD experienced more severe conflict, greater anger, and increased cardiovascular reactivity to conflict discussions than couples where neither partner had PTSD. Anger and physiological stress responses to couple discord might contribute to CHD and heart disease risk within these relationships. 29,30
Racial and ethnic minorities. Lastly, studies focused on racial or ethnic minority groups found that depression, stress, and anxiety due to disparities in social determinants of health, 31 adverse childhood experiences, 32 and racism/discrimination 33-35 could place certain subpopulations at a higher risk for hypertension, 32,33,35,36 cardiovascular reactivity, 35 heart disease, 31,34 and poor heart health outcomes. 37