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To what extent is xenophobia not selective?

To what extent is xenophobia not selective?



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I read in the The Economist that

in most countries, anti-Semitism rises or falls in concert with nationalism and identity politics. David Feldman of the Pears Institute notes the importance of “competitive victimhood”, in which claims of oppression by Jews, Muslims and other groups step on each others' toes. Dariusz Stola, head of the Polin Museum of Polish Jewish History, says the same is true in Poland, where the national story is one of victimisation by Germany and Russia. It is more accurate, he thinks, to see anti-Semitism as part of a general wave of chauvinist sentiment since the migrant crisis of 2015; levels of hostility to Muslims, gays and Roma have risen too. Says Mr Stola: “Xenophobia is not selective.”

Since most observational studies on this are going to have trouble with confounders, are there any controlled experiments of inducing some level of xenophobia and measuring its "halo effect" against out-groups not specifically targeted (by the experimental message)?


Xenophobia

In the modern world, the diversity of cultures on this planet becomes more evident when seen in the process of globalization. Both internal and external conflict during this process is certain, whereby overt and covert actions threaten a population’s autonomy, sovereignty, and nationalistic state. The resulting psychological state becomes that of xenophobia. Xenophobia is the psychological reaction of an individual who has a fear or contempt response to anything that is culturally foreign. This reaction can manifest itself from extreme isolationism to extreme aggression. When viewing the process of globalization and multiculturalism in an evolutionary framework, the resulting xenophobia may be viewed as a natural response to cultural incursion. Preservation, as will be seen, is a result of acute perception and successful behavioral adaptation.

Although some psychologists and philosophers, including natural theologians, would be reluctant to admit the pivotal role that biology has on human behavior, the unfolding potentiality of the DNA results in the adaptive behavioral response on both an individual and social level. When viewing an individual as evolutionary chance, the adaptive behavioral responses can be understood in terms of an Evolutionary Stable Strategy. Any behavior that would tend to increase the chance to reproduce successfully would be opted. When expanded to the level of a population, individual cost-benefit analysis would dictate behavioral action. Although similarities in phenotypic expressions (for example, genetic distance) would be a strong motivating factor for group behavior, reciprocal altruism seen at large-scale populations would be influenced by cultural factors that extend beyond close kin-based social systems. Xenophobia becomes an actuality of these intense egoistic tendencies transferred into a population.

Understanding the cultural expressions for this psychological phenomenon is the key for behavioral modification. Although complete modification sought by proponents of multiculturalism can distract from the main issues, the significance of cultural determinates for the individual becomes an integral part of shared group cognition. Although the cultural history of our species can be seen in the archaeological record, these remnants can be seen as a physical representation of active memes. In short, memes are bits of cultural information that are transmitted from individual to individual. These memes take the form of ideas, languages, and their physical extensions. Through the process of imitation, memes have modified the way by which our species exist. Modifications from these memes, which has resulted in genetic variation, gave rise to opportunity for our species to populate the globe. Within historical time, small remote populations of our hominid ancestors would eventually give way to civilization and the development of the state.

With the advent of civilization, our species probably experienced the greatest qualitative and quantitative degree of the xenophobic phenomenon. Although nomadic populations would experience a small degree of xenophobia (for example, in justification of territorial disputes), civilization constructively used the phenomenon as an internal control. Building upon natural tendencies found within our species, each population’s values, expressed in folk, moray, laws, and mythology, creates the deep-seated feeling of nationalism. Nationalism does not only act as a cohesive force, but the guiding level by which the xenophobia is allowed to express itself, defining citizenship and civic duty.

With the expanding social structure and greater encompassing cultural ideologies, individual identity is taken from and contributed back to the social structure. Geographic location, genetic distance, and enculturation become central to group acceptance. When viewed politically, it becomes a question of citizenship. Expressed in terms of a political social contract, the importance of citizenship becomes evident: Acknowledgment of an individual by a political body brings inherent social benefits and obligations. The underlying structure of the cultural base of the nation-state, by which was created and sustains political structure, becomes a pivotal reliance for the differentiated individuals in a population group. Essentially, the individual views others as part of an extended family not foreigner, but countryman. In the midst of environmental uncertainty, where personal mortality becomes highly probable, having citizen status becomes beneficial. However, citizenship does have a price. Defending and supporting the state against enemies, both internal and external, can be overwhelming yet, the cost-benefit analysis gives greater weight for political unity. Examples can be seen in the historical analysis of the Greek city-states and the Roman Empire. The two examples show the extremes, the Greek based on geographic location and the Roman based on the acceptance of Roman ideals and culture.

Taking a cue from social constructs, especially seen during the classical period, the development of these united groups creates two distinct categories: us and them. During the creation of these ethnocentric ideals, the outsider is considered to be subservient and inferior. Reflexivity being critical in the psychological development of the self, marginal individuals (for example, slave and lower class) accept the social status. Reinforcements, both negative and positive, continue to regulate and subjugate those whom society has deemed unworthy. Although citizenship is a positive step for those who are disenfranchised, social and cultural acceptance rarely succeed. For the most part, citizenship does provide a meager means for social mobility. In this manner, when people of marginal status acquire dominant values, there is a greater degree for social advancements. This in turn will increase the chances for survival. Accounting for the nature of these biases within social dynamics is the key to our sociobiological behavior of our present and future interactions.

The sociopolitical experiment created by the founders of the United States was a quantum leap forward from the traditional political and ethnic systems of continental Europe and England. Although the original 13 colonies claimed to be Englishmen proper, the combination of both financial and intracultural xenophobia by England had caused rapid deterioration and open conflict. The imperialistic impetus may have reduced xenophobia to flirtation with novelty, yet any action that would directly challenge the sociopolitical structure would be suppressed. As the United States gained independence, internal xenophobia would continue to express itself in both political ideologies and civil law, just as it did in the former mother country, England.

With the creation of a country where opportunities and social mobility were possible, an influx of immigrants (especially during the 20th century) from different cultural backgrounds gave the country a unique identity. However, these segments of populations remained “separate but equal” in the name of toleration. Discrimination and violence (for example, slavery and religious fervor) set the tone for sanctions against those that would deviate from the norm. In this manner, xenophobia could be extended to the puritan ideals concerning religiosity (for example, including sexuality and the occult). Even in the light of newly gained civil freedoms, the cultural flexibility of what was considered to be “American” was from the multicultural ideal. American culture did have a unique flavor that set it apart from its European counterpart yet the social stratification reflected, to varying degrees, the internal xenophobic reaction. This would remain throughout the development of the United States. However, through liberal and active legislation, the embracing of pluralism and soon-to-be multiculturalism posed as an interesting variable within the social experiment.

The best solution considered for the xenophobic reaction is education. A proponent of cultural pluralism, the psychologist William James (1842-1910) rejected the basis of xenophobia and ethnocentrism as a Darwinian model of social selection. Viewing his public activism, James sought equality for those who were subjected to racist or discriminatory practices. James believed that through education, an environmental factor, the impressions upon the mind could reduce or offset the cultural impressions that occurred during early development. This in turn would reduce or eliminate xenophobic behavior or habits. The degree to which the habit would change is not predictable, due to the weight of individualism within the realm of pragmatism.

Considering this perspective, especially in light of an evolutionary framework, James’s framework must incorporate basic principles of evolutionary thought. James accepted theses basic principles. In this view, natural selection and sexual selection created the basis of the diversity of life. Although he acknowledged the role of religion in an individual’s life, the origin of our species’ social structure was without divine or Aristotelian structure. Viewing social selection as reflecting dominant group values, the resulting ethnicity is seen as an adaptation in progress for the selected group. Although there are many internal contradictions within his philosophical view, the equality in weight of each culture depicted his view of pluralism. This would be extended into areas of moral or ethical views.

In an attempt to reconcile Darwinian evolution with some form of cultural relativism, James, as well as John Dewey, viewed each culture with a sense of understanding. Although rejecting the notion of superiority of one culture at the expense of another, every culture can be seen as reflecting the mode of production by which each society operates. Development, as depicted by growing complexity, still retained the evolutionary perspective yet there was a given commonality or uniting ties among populations of the world. James warned against romanticizing the “noble savage” and more simplistic lifestyles: He valued them with compassion, but gave the more complex and advanced societies an elevated status among pluralistic cultures. Essentially, each stage of social evolution reflected or retained some essence of previous stages within their evolutionary past. In modern societies, these valued perspectives would be modified or subjected to the process of alienation. Just as seen by the philosophy of Karl Marx (1818-1883), this alienation can manifest itself in various forms of conflict. With social conflict eminent, the role and existence of xenophobia appears to be certain.

As the United States experiences the trials and tribulations of a growing republic, multicultural policies and social integration attempts reflect more of a utopian ideal than a reflection of our species’ social structure. Even though race is understood as being a social construct, the cost-benefit analysis based on phenotypic expressions (whether they are inclusive) is real. Cultural expressions are equally, if not more, important in the psychological stability of a population group. Even though culture and genetic distance do have a great effect upon behavior (reciprocal altruism), sexual selection does have great importance in the “desirability factor” of the process of reproduction. Granting the selective power exhibited in the social realm, individual genetic fitness and expressed variation appear to operate on a more determinate level. The behavior expressed on this level is beyond the confines of culture. Deviants from the sociocultural norm will receive sanctions. The cultural rules become more complex if new cultural variants are added within the population. The resulting xenophobic reactions are patterns of behavior reinforced to ensure the survival of a closely knitted genetic group. Although xenophobic actions can be reduced by diffusion across minor degrees of cultural variation, differences will be seen if independent and distinct states are united. This will be seen within the European Union.

To offset the economic and political power of the United States, the European Union used the same constitutional provisions enacted by the founders of the United States. Acknowledging the American political genius reflected by the creators of this unique document, the European community has attempted to unite the diverse populations and their respective cultural backgrounds. Plagued by centuries of war and strife, a peaceful union among conflicting ideologies seems impossible, yet practical. Can the segmented genetic populations of Europe that are separated by language, customs and traditions, and philosophies unite? Will old rivalries and imperialistic tendencies that support the prevalent economic structure impede the process of uniting? Although our species must remain optimistic and the desire for peace remains strong, the suggestive power of both history and mythology (including religion) will be a source of conflict and present an immovable barrier. When calculating the cost-benefit analysis, the degree of reciprocity will be questioned. Considering the cultural relevance and genetic distance, will the countries of economic and military prowess surrender their sovereignty and position for the rest of the European community? Other than a gesture of good will, the welfare of the industrialized countries will always take precedence over other less advanced or economically sound countries. Any threats to the stability of said country, external or internal, will result in an inversion to a degree of nationalism and xenophobia. Internally and externally, these problems will continue to be present within the mainstream dominant culture.

In order not to oversimplify or underestimate the structure of the European Union, the problems facing Europe are unlike those facing the United States. The United States is dominated by one language (not yet official), tradition (combined), and inclusive geographic location. More importantly, the sovereign states share a common history and growth, perhaps a sense of manifest destiny (1841-1848). The roles of the state and federal governments are clearly defined and practical. Even if multiculturalism is not central to the issues at hand, the resulting empathy is serving as a process of further uniting and seeking out cultural universals among many particulars. Unlike the United States, the European Union does not have a common language, custom, or a sense of cultural unity. In the area of civic history, known past aggressions and alliances serve only to strain the relations among countries in the union, producing mistrust and civil discord. These diverging facts make the attempted union problematic. Unless a union of culture, including language, is attempted, the process of unification will be impossible. There must be recognition of the underlying philosophical role concerning cultural adaptation.

Taking an evolutionary view of xenophobia, the hidden biases steeped within culture are evident. The smaller the population of a group, the greater the degree of xenophobia for cultural purity will be seen in the face of cultural incursion. Additionally, the use of natural recourses becomes another factor in the cost-benefit analysis faced by ethnic groups. Although phobias are considered irrational, the emotional sediment shared at a group level is legitimized politically, sometimes religiously. Whether the results are discrimination or a “holy war” of terror, the xenophobic actions have consequences in the global theater.

As a republic, the United States has shown great restraint toward those who display aggressive xenophobia actions. Attacks upon the sovereignty of the United States (September 11) are a declaration of war. Covert actions coupled with religious fervor sets the tone of future conflicts. This reality, in conjunction with a political socialistic “pie in the sky” mentality, creates a disjunction whereby the enemy and treason can flourish. Were the following statements xenophobic or statement of fact? Although a political statement is certain (conservative or liberal), xenophobic underpinnings are present in form of nationalistic ideology. It is easy to see how such statements can arouse emotional sediment. These alarming words, however functional and necessary they may be, can increase xenophobic reactions in others. In terms of individuality, these actions are not only justified but are beyond moral qualifications. Survival is essential, not optional.

The quandary that faces our species has been the subject for philosophers for centuries. Defining humanity in terms of ontology and teleology has given our species a start into understanding ourselves in relation to the world. Refinements in science have brought new insights into the human predicament. Advancements in biology and the cognitive sciences continue to redefine humanity. Perhaps accepting common values and traditions can be the beginning of reducing xenophobia, but its elimination will require something more critical than education. As evolution produced the question, evolution may someday give the answer.


Risk-Taking Behavior

A. Haydon , . C.T. Halpern , in Encyclopedia of Adolescence , 2011

Conclusions and Future Directions

There is no single cause of adolescent risk-taking behavior like all of human behavior, increased risk taking during adolescence is the result of dynamic and continuous interactions that occur across different levels of influence. Much work remains to be done to integrate our knowledge of adolescent risk behavior into a comprehensive theory of adolescent development , and to better understand the developmental function and importance of risk behaviors in general.

Although much of the research on adolescence represents a continuation of the ‘storm and stress’ perspective first described by G. Stanley Hall (and underscored in the quote that introduced this article), new ways of studying and conceptualizing adolescence – and adolescent risk behavior – that represent a more integrative approach are emerging. For example, the use of large-scale, longitudinal data sets provides a unique opportunity to distinguish patterns of adolescent risk taking that lead to negative developmental outcomes from those that are not associated with long-term dysfunction. Data sets that include information on the multiple domains of adolescent life also allow researchers to examine the ways in which adolescent risk taking coacts with other domains of social and personal experiences such as academic functioning, family interactions, and peer relationships.

The positive youth development approach, which gained prominence during the 1990s, reflects another important change in thinking. This perspective shifts emphasis from ‘storm and stress’ to a more strengths-based vision of adolescence, in which the intent is to facilitate healthy development and full preparation for adulthood rather than simply preventing problem behaviors. One important implication of the positive youth development approach is that it locates the causes of adolescent problem behavior and risk taking not solely within the individual, but also within the relationships and connections between adolescents and their communities. This emphasis on structural change and intervention underscores the need for programs and institutions that are better aligned with adolescents' developmental needs, support both growing autonomy and caring adult relationships, teach essential life skills, and provide opportunities to make meaningful contributions to the community. Such an approach goes beyond the prevention of adolescent risk behavior to encompass healthy development in the broadest sense.

When considered in this broader developmental context, the assertion that risk taking during adolescence is solely and universally destructive becomes indefensible. Instead, exploratory behaviors – which necessarily include some element of risk – are a critical part of individual growth. For example, entering into a romantic relationship during adolescence could be considered ‘risky’ for girls because of its association with moderate increases in depressive symptoms. However, adolescent romantic relationships also provide an opportunity to develop a sense of oneself as a worthy and competent romantic partner, and could therefore also be viewed as an ultimately positive form of risk taking. By experimenting with different roles and behaviors, adolescents can develop personal values, beliefs, and expectations learn to navigate social relationships and distinguish between adaptive and maladaptive behaviors and strategies. To the extent that exploration is limited, so too are these opportunities to develop and practice mature judgment. The role of researchers and policymakers, then, is to identify and promote social environments and personal resources that reduce the likelihood of negative consequences of adolescent risk taking without denying opportunities for exploration.


An Overview Of Selective Memory

Most people have heard the term &ldquoselective memory&rdquo at least once in their lives. Generally, this is used critically or sarcastically nevertheless, the ability to truly understand the ins and outs of selective memory and all that it entails can truly come in handy.

First and foremost, selective memory (also sometimes referred to as selective amnesia) is clinically defined as &ldquothe ability to retrieve certain facts and events but not others.&rdquo In most cases, an individual who genuinely experiences selective amnesia may forget certain significant events or milestones in their lives, such as skills, friendships, relationships, abilities, or even prior traumatic experiences.

Potential Triggers Of Selective Memory

Many scientists and psychologists have devoted countless hours to studying selective memory and potential factors that can trigger its occurrence. Even though new research is conducted each day, an article published in Frontiers in Psychology noted that emotional influences can either enhance or impair learning and retention of new information.

Imbalanced Emotions

Individuals who have personality disorders or other similar ailments may be more susceptible to emotional highs and lows. A great example of this is bipolar disorder, which is generally associated with manic highs and depressive lows. Extreme, emotional highs and lows are moreover linked to mental functions, similarly to memory. People who have various personality disorders may experience a phenomenon where their feelings are so intense that they outweigh the proper recollection of an event. This is clinically known as disassociation, which is regarded as a rather extreme form of selective memory.

Poor Nutrition

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Another potential factor involved in selective memory comes in the form of poor dieting. The food that people consume impacts their lives in more ways than they can begin to imagine. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that certain foods can have long-term, adverse impacts on an individual&rsquos memory and disturb their thinking capabilities.

Preservatives, processed foods/drinks, chemical additives, and foods with high amounts of sugar are all linked to negative effects on the brain. For this reason (and many others), the consumption of healthy foods (fruits, fish, vegetables, poultry, etc.) is strongly encouraged. Processed, sugary foods may taste good however, that doesn&rsquot mean that they are good.

Human Willpower

People do have the power to repress, and eventually forget, certain memories, states an article from Telegraph. Intentionally repressing a memory for long enough can cause one to forget it. This occurs because the brain becomes active when someone purposefully works to forget something.

While selective memory is generally regarded as a negative happening, there are certain instances where it can come in handy. A great example of this is in cases of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other painful events that may do more harm than good. It is inadvisable to repress memories as a manner of dealing with challenges from the past. Unresolved, buried issues tend to fester and ooze out in unhealthy manners if they are not dealt with. Therefore, handling problems as they arise is better and much more constructive than simply attempting to forget them.

However, human willpower is sometimes a component that can prompt or enable selective memory.

Diseases/Disorders/Aging

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The human brain and body are always changing. Unfortunately, not all changes are great, especially as people age. Many side effects of aging can manifest in the form of memory problems. Sadly, one symptom of various memory issues can be selective memory or a form of it. Common memory disorders of this nature include, but are not limited to Alzheimer&rsquos disease, Parkinson&rsquos disease, amnesia, stress, dementia, etc.

More often than not, a healthy lifestyle (exercise, human interactions, nutritious diet) can serve as a deterrent to the memory above ailments.

A Clinical Analysis Of Selective Memory

Many people fail to realize just how layered selective memory can be. Many of these variations come in the form of amnesia or hypermnesia. First and foremost, it is very important to understand that amnesia comes in various forms and degrees. In its mildest capacity, a mild amnesiac may struggle to remember certain facts or pieces of information. In more severe degrees, an individual who experiences amnesia may lose ownership of virtually all of their memories. Extreme amnesia generally surpasses selective memory while the latter only pertains to certain memories, the former (at its worst) causes the person to lose touch with all of their memories.

Another form of amnesia (and selective memory) manifests in the form of forgetting various periods within an event. Clinically known as lacunar amnesia, someone who suffers from this ailment may subsequently lose the memory of seconds, hours, or even days of a particular event. Sometimes lacunar amnesia is referred to as a blackout however, it is usually engendered by drugs, alcohol, trauma, or other unpleasantries.

Evocation amnesia could almost be regarded as a distant cousin of lacunar amnesia. Instead of forgetting various periods within an event, this particular offshoot of selective memory prompts the afflicted individual to lose recollection of the specific names of individuals or inanimate objects. For instance, an evocative amnesiac might meet various people at events, yet subsequently, fail to remember their names. Oddly enough, the plighted individual may remember everything else about the people they encountered other than their names.

Finally comes hypermnesia. This particular variation of selective memory may be somewhat confusing to most people. In a sense, hypermnesia is the reverse of amnesia. Rather than the decreasing lack of memory (amnesia), hypermnesia occurs when an individual eerily seems to remember information all at once. This phenomenon is much rarer than amnesia and is most reported amongst individuals who have undergone near-death experiences or had epilepsy at one point or another.

Personality Traits And Selective Memory

The various forms and clinical analyses regarding selective memory inherently beg to question: are certain personality types more susceptible to selective memory than others?

Individual personality traits may have significant impacts on how someone recalls a prior situation or encounter. In layman&rsquos terms, selective memory is a matter of perception. For instance, people who tend to be more anxious or on edge are likelier to remember a situation in a manner that suits their desires and wishes.

In its most insidious and malicious form, selective memory is sometimes regarded as a common trait amongst narcissists and other malignantly self-centered individuals. However, when regarding narcissists, selective memory tends to be more calculated and intentional, rather than clinical.

Narcissists with an agenda may, therefore, seek to manipulate certain people or circumstances by telling revised versions of an occurrence. They may purposefully leave out certain information or details to cast themselves in a favorable light or paint a picture that simply isn&rsquot accurate.

However, even amongst narcissists, there are some questions and debates regarding selective memory. While some individuals maintain that narcissists gleefully lie and misrepresent situations for the sake of improving their self-image, other people have stated that narcissists truly do believe what they&rsquore saying. In other words, the latter group believes that narcissists have succumbed to such an intense state of delusion that they have fallen for their con and believe their claims, regardless of how misleading or duplicitous they may be.

A Final Word

To some extent, every person has their degree of &ldquoselective memory.&rdquo After all, memories are not clear-cut they are not black and white. Two people could witness the same event and still leave with at least somewhat conflicting viewpoints. Every person&rsquos thoughts and personal interpretations are, to some degree, influenced by who they are, how they perceive the world, and their prior experiences.

Selective memory can become problematic when it seriously impacts one&rsquos ability to interact with others and recall events. Someone who experiences genuine and clinical selective memory should seek out the services of a licensed professional and determine what their options are.

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BetterHelp also exists as an alternative for those who may be going through tough times or otherwise feeling unsure of themselves. Every person has their battles and crosses to bear. Virtually everyone needs help at one point or another. This is nothing to be ashamed of. A critical component of growing and evolving as an individual pertains to the ability to ask for guidance or assistance when necessary. A study published in Perspectives on Psychological Science found that computer-delivered memory training helped alleviate the symptoms of participants living with generalized anxiety disorders, cognitive biases, and other related conditions. It also found that patients undergoing behavioral therapy enjoyed online session homework, phone coaching, and text messages, which are three key tools used in cognitive behavioral therapy. Patients reported improvements in their cognitive recall over several sessions.

If you are not sure about pursuing face-to-face therapy, or if such resources are not available in your area, online therapy is another option. Although online therapy is a relatively new tool in the realm of mental health resources, it&rsquos an effective and convenient alternative to traditional therapy. Platforms such as BetterHelp offer affordable options such as phone calls, video conferences, and live messaging. You can attend these sessions without leaving your home, on your own schedule, and with a licensed therapist who is uniquely trained to help you.

Regardless of which kind of therapy you are considering, BetterHelp will always be here as an option for anyone who may be struggling or simply through the innate ups and downs of life.

If you or a loved one ever feel the need to contact BetterHelp for any reason, you can do so by clicking here. Here are just a few reviews from those who have reached out for BetterHelp:

&ldquoBeth has been absolutely amazing! I was wary about the platform at first and doing so much work via messaging, but it feels easy with Beth. She remembers our conversations and checks in with me if I don&rsquot say anything for a few days. She&rsquos able to make observations about my life without taking sides or making me feel judged. I feel so fortunate to be working with her.&rdquo

&ldquoAmy makes great attempts to try and figure out how to best approach the clients needs for each session. She&rsquos willing to listen if that&rsquos what you need. She&rsquos willing to ask questions if that&rsquos what&rsquos needed. She also gives great examples for your current needs. I love that she&rsquos explicitly connects current reflections back to the goals that were shared. She&rsquos a great listener, and she shares great advice."


Psychological health during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic outbreak

Background: The current ongoing pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) has globally affected 213 countries and territories with more than 2.5 million confirmed cases and thousands of casualties. The unpredictable and uncertain COVID-19 outbreak has the potential of adversely affecting the psychological health on individual and community level. Currently all efforts are focused on the understanding of epidemiology, clinical features, mode of transmission, counteract the spread of the virus, and challenges of global health, while crucially significant mental health has been overlooked in this endeavor.

Method: This review is to evaluate past outbreaks to understand the extent of adverse effects on psychological health, psychological crisis intervention, and mental health management plans. Published previous and current articles on PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Elsevier about psychological impact of infectious diseases outbreaks and COVID-19 has been considered and reviewed.

Comments: COVID-19 is leading to intense psychosocial issues and comprising mental health marking a secondary health concern all around the world. Globally implementing preventive and controlling measures, and cultivating coping and resilience are challenging factors modified lifestyle (lockdown curfew, self-isolation, social distancing and quarantine) conspiracy theories, misinformation and disinformation about the origin, scale, signs, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment global socioeconomic crisis travel restrictions workplace hazard control postponement and cancellation of religious, sports, cultural and entertainment events panic buying and hoarding incidents of racism, xenophobia, discrimination, stigma, psychological pressure of productivity, marginalization and violence overwhelmed medical centers and health organizations, and general impact on education, politics, socioeconomic, culture, environment and climate - are some of the risk factors to aggravate further problems.

Keywords: COVID-19 coping coronavirus pandemic mental health mindfulness and well-being misinfodemics psychological problems psychosocial issues resilience social and behavioral epidemiology stigma.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.


5. Emotionally immature people are irresponsible with money

Impulsivity is one of the most noticeable emotional trait of immature people. Many times, that impulsivity is expressed in how they manage their resources, like money. So since they’re only concerned with satisfying their desires, and as fast as possible, they don’t hesitate to buy things they don’t need with money they don’t have.

Sometimes they take on crazy financial risks. They don’t objectively evaluate investments and have a hard time making long-term projections. Because of this, it is common for this type of person to find themselves in debt. And all of this just to satisfy their whims.

None of these traits of immaturity are there because of a conscious decision. Most of the time, they are there because of the individual’s childhood. They can also be the consequence of going through unfortunate things in life that have prevented them from growing.

If this is you, or you if know someone like this, it’s not about pointing fingers. What is truly important is to be aware that growing as a person can mean a better life.


How to Defeat Xenophobia

This article was co-authored by Nancy Lin, Ph.D.. Dr. Nancy Lin is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist and the Owner of Go to Sleep San Diego, a private practice providing therapy for people suffering from insomnia, trauma, depression, and related problems. She is also trained in issues related to cultural diversity in mental health. Dr. Lin holds a Bachelors degree in Psychology from The University of California, Berkeley and a Masters degree in Medical Anthropology from the University of London, SOAS. She earned her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from The University of Massachusetts Boston and completed an APA-accredited internship and postdoctoral training at the VA San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS).

There are 12 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

This article has been viewed 191,487 times.

Xenophobia is a fear and stigmatization of foreigners. People who look different, speak a different language, or have different customs can appear threatening to those who are used to only one particular ethnic group, lifestyle or set of behaviors. [1] X Research source But xenophobia can be overcome, and you can take it on either directly or through community engagement and political action.


A selective review of selective attention research from the past century

Research on attention is concerned with selective processing of incoming sensory information. To some extent, our awareness of the world depends on what we choose to attend, not merely on the stimulation entering our senses. British psychologists have made substantial contributions to this topic in the past century. Celebrated examples include Donald Broadbent's filter theory of attention, which set the agenda for most subsequent work and Anne Treisman's revisions of this account, and her later feature-integration theory. More recent contributions include Alan Allport's prescient emphasis on the relevance of neuroscience data, and John Duncan's integration of such data with psychological theory. An idiosyncratic but roughly chronological review of developments is presented, some practical and clinical implications are briefly sketched, and future directions suggested. One of the biggest changes in the field has been the increasing interplay between psychology and neuroscience, which promises much for the future. A related change has been the realization that selection attention is best thought of as a broad topic, encompassing a range of selective issues, rather than as a single explanatory process.


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Neuroimaging of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: a targeted review

The goal of this article is to provide a selective and targeted review of the neuroimaging literature on psychopathic tendencies and antisocial behavior and to explore the extent to which this literature supports recent cognitive neuroscientific models of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. The literature reveals that individuals who present with an increased risk for reactive, but not instrumental, aggression show increased amygdala responses to emotionally evocative stimuli. This is consistent with suggestions that such individuals are primed to respond strongly to an inappropriate extent to threatening or frustrating events. In contrast, individuals with psychopathic tendencies show decreased amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex responses to emotionally provocative stimuli or during emotional learning paradigms. This is consistent with suggestions that such individuals face difficulties with basic forms of emotional learning and decision making.

Conflict of interest statement

Disclosure No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.


5. Emotionally immature people are irresponsible with money

Impulsivity is one of the most noticeable emotional trait of immature people. Many times, that impulsivity is expressed in how they manage their resources, like money. So since they’re only concerned with satisfying their desires, and as fast as possible, they don’t hesitate to buy things they don’t need with money they don’t have.

Sometimes they take on crazy financial risks. They don’t objectively evaluate investments and have a hard time making long-term projections. Because of this, it is common for this type of person to find themselves in debt. And all of this just to satisfy their whims.

None of these traits of immaturity are there because of a conscious decision. Most of the time, they are there because of the individual’s childhood. They can also be the consequence of going through unfortunate things in life that have prevented them from growing.

If this is you, or you if know someone like this, it’s not about pointing fingers. What is truly important is to be aware that growing as a person can mean a better life.


Xenophobia

In the modern world, the diversity of cultures on this planet becomes more evident when seen in the process of globalization. Both internal and external conflict during this process is certain, whereby overt and covert actions threaten a population’s autonomy, sovereignty, and nationalistic state. The resulting psychological state becomes that of xenophobia. Xenophobia is the psychological reaction of an individual who has a fear or contempt response to anything that is culturally foreign. This reaction can manifest itself from extreme isolationism to extreme aggression. When viewing the process of globalization and multiculturalism in an evolutionary framework, the resulting xenophobia may be viewed as a natural response to cultural incursion. Preservation, as will be seen, is a result of acute perception and successful behavioral adaptation.

Although some psychologists and philosophers, including natural theologians, would be reluctant to admit the pivotal role that biology has on human behavior, the unfolding potentiality of the DNA results in the adaptive behavioral response on both an individual and social level. When viewing an individual as evolutionary chance, the adaptive behavioral responses can be understood in terms of an Evolutionary Stable Strategy. Any behavior that would tend to increase the chance to reproduce successfully would be opted. When expanded to the level of a population, individual cost-benefit analysis would dictate behavioral action. Although similarities in phenotypic expressions (for example, genetic distance) would be a strong motivating factor for group behavior, reciprocal altruism seen at large-scale populations would be influenced by cultural factors that extend beyond close kin-based social systems. Xenophobia becomes an actuality of these intense egoistic tendencies transferred into a population.

Understanding the cultural expressions for this psychological phenomenon is the key for behavioral modification. Although complete modification sought by proponents of multiculturalism can distract from the main issues, the significance of cultural determinates for the individual becomes an integral part of shared group cognition. Although the cultural history of our species can be seen in the archaeological record, these remnants can be seen as a physical representation of active memes. In short, memes are bits of cultural information that are transmitted from individual to individual. These memes take the form of ideas, languages, and their physical extensions. Through the process of imitation, memes have modified the way by which our species exist. Modifications from these memes, which has resulted in genetic variation, gave rise to opportunity for our species to populate the globe. Within historical time, small remote populations of our hominid ancestors would eventually give way to civilization and the development of the state.

With the advent of civilization, our species probably experienced the greatest qualitative and quantitative degree of the xenophobic phenomenon. Although nomadic populations would experience a small degree of xenophobia (for example, in justification of territorial disputes), civilization constructively used the phenomenon as an internal control. Building upon natural tendencies found within our species, each population’s values, expressed in folk, moray, laws, and mythology, creates the deep-seated feeling of nationalism. Nationalism does not only act as a cohesive force, but the guiding level by which the xenophobia is allowed to express itself, defining citizenship and civic duty.

With the expanding social structure and greater encompassing cultural ideologies, individual identity is taken from and contributed back to the social structure. Geographic location, genetic distance, and enculturation become central to group acceptance. When viewed politically, it becomes a question of citizenship. Expressed in terms of a political social contract, the importance of citizenship becomes evident: Acknowledgment of an individual by a political body brings inherent social benefits and obligations. The underlying structure of the cultural base of the nation-state, by which was created and sustains political structure, becomes a pivotal reliance for the differentiated individuals in a population group. Essentially, the individual views others as part of an extended family not foreigner, but countryman. In the midst of environmental uncertainty, where personal mortality becomes highly probable, having citizen status becomes beneficial. However, citizenship does have a price. Defending and supporting the state against enemies, both internal and external, can be overwhelming yet, the cost-benefit analysis gives greater weight for political unity. Examples can be seen in the historical analysis of the Greek city-states and the Roman Empire. The two examples show the extremes, the Greek based on geographic location and the Roman based on the acceptance of Roman ideals and culture.

Taking a cue from social constructs, especially seen during the classical period, the development of these united groups creates two distinct categories: us and them. During the creation of these ethnocentric ideals, the outsider is considered to be subservient and inferior. Reflexivity being critical in the psychological development of the self, marginal individuals (for example, slave and lower class) accept the social status. Reinforcements, both negative and positive, continue to regulate and subjugate those whom society has deemed unworthy. Although citizenship is a positive step for those who are disenfranchised, social and cultural acceptance rarely succeed. For the most part, citizenship does provide a meager means for social mobility. In this manner, when people of marginal status acquire dominant values, there is a greater degree for social advancements. This in turn will increase the chances for survival. Accounting for the nature of these biases within social dynamics is the key to our sociobiological behavior of our present and future interactions.

The sociopolitical experiment created by the founders of the United States was a quantum leap forward from the traditional political and ethnic systems of continental Europe and England. Although the original 13 colonies claimed to be Englishmen proper, the combination of both financial and intracultural xenophobia by England had caused rapid deterioration and open conflict. The imperialistic impetus may have reduced xenophobia to flirtation with novelty, yet any action that would directly challenge the sociopolitical structure would be suppressed. As the United States gained independence, internal xenophobia would continue to express itself in both political ideologies and civil law, just as it did in the former mother country, England.

With the creation of a country where opportunities and social mobility were possible, an influx of immigrants (especially during the 20th century) from different cultural backgrounds gave the country a unique identity. However, these segments of populations remained “separate but equal” in the name of toleration. Discrimination and violence (for example, slavery and religious fervor) set the tone for sanctions against those that would deviate from the norm. In this manner, xenophobia could be extended to the puritan ideals concerning religiosity (for example, including sexuality and the occult). Even in the light of newly gained civil freedoms, the cultural flexibility of what was considered to be “American” was from the multicultural ideal. American culture did have a unique flavor that set it apart from its European counterpart yet the social stratification reflected, to varying degrees, the internal xenophobic reaction. This would remain throughout the development of the United States. However, through liberal and active legislation, the embracing of pluralism and soon-to-be multiculturalism posed as an interesting variable within the social experiment.

The best solution considered for the xenophobic reaction is education. A proponent of cultural pluralism, the psychologist William James (1842-1910) rejected the basis of xenophobia and ethnocentrism as a Darwinian model of social selection. Viewing his public activism, James sought equality for those who were subjected to racist or discriminatory practices. James believed that through education, an environmental factor, the impressions upon the mind could reduce or offset the cultural impressions that occurred during early development. This in turn would reduce or eliminate xenophobic behavior or habits. The degree to which the habit would change is not predictable, due to the weight of individualism within the realm of pragmatism.

Considering this perspective, especially in light of an evolutionary framework, James’s framework must incorporate basic principles of evolutionary thought. James accepted theses basic principles. In this view, natural selection and sexual selection created the basis of the diversity of life. Although he acknowledged the role of religion in an individual’s life, the origin of our species’ social structure was without divine or Aristotelian structure. Viewing social selection as reflecting dominant group values, the resulting ethnicity is seen as an adaptation in progress for the selected group. Although there are many internal contradictions within his philosophical view, the equality in weight of each culture depicted his view of pluralism. This would be extended into areas of moral or ethical views.

In an attempt to reconcile Darwinian evolution with some form of cultural relativism, James, as well as John Dewey, viewed each culture with a sense of understanding. Although rejecting the notion of superiority of one culture at the expense of another, every culture can be seen as reflecting the mode of production by which each society operates. Development, as depicted by growing complexity, still retained the evolutionary perspective yet there was a given commonality or uniting ties among populations of the world. James warned against romanticizing the “noble savage” and more simplistic lifestyles: He valued them with compassion, but gave the more complex and advanced societies an elevated status among pluralistic cultures. Essentially, each stage of social evolution reflected or retained some essence of previous stages within their evolutionary past. In modern societies, these valued perspectives would be modified or subjected to the process of alienation. Just as seen by the philosophy of Karl Marx (1818-1883), this alienation can manifest itself in various forms of conflict. With social conflict eminent, the role and existence of xenophobia appears to be certain.

As the United States experiences the trials and tribulations of a growing republic, multicultural policies and social integration attempts reflect more of a utopian ideal than a reflection of our species’ social structure. Even though race is understood as being a social construct, the cost-benefit analysis based on phenotypic expressions (whether they are inclusive) is real. Cultural expressions are equally, if not more, important in the psychological stability of a population group. Even though culture and genetic distance do have a great effect upon behavior (reciprocal altruism), sexual selection does have great importance in the “desirability factor” of the process of reproduction. Granting the selective power exhibited in the social realm, individual genetic fitness and expressed variation appear to operate on a more determinate level. The behavior expressed on this level is beyond the confines of culture. Deviants from the sociocultural norm will receive sanctions. The cultural rules become more complex if new cultural variants are added within the population. The resulting xenophobic reactions are patterns of behavior reinforced to ensure the survival of a closely knitted genetic group. Although xenophobic actions can be reduced by diffusion across minor degrees of cultural variation, differences will be seen if independent and distinct states are united. This will be seen within the European Union.

To offset the economic and political power of the United States, the European Union used the same constitutional provisions enacted by the founders of the United States. Acknowledging the American political genius reflected by the creators of this unique document, the European community has attempted to unite the diverse populations and their respective cultural backgrounds. Plagued by centuries of war and strife, a peaceful union among conflicting ideologies seems impossible, yet practical. Can the segmented genetic populations of Europe that are separated by language, customs and traditions, and philosophies unite? Will old rivalries and imperialistic tendencies that support the prevalent economic structure impede the process of uniting? Although our species must remain optimistic and the desire for peace remains strong, the suggestive power of both history and mythology (including religion) will be a source of conflict and present an immovable barrier. When calculating the cost-benefit analysis, the degree of reciprocity will be questioned. Considering the cultural relevance and genetic distance, will the countries of economic and military prowess surrender their sovereignty and position for the rest of the European community? Other than a gesture of good will, the welfare of the industrialized countries will always take precedence over other less advanced or economically sound countries. Any threats to the stability of said country, external or internal, will result in an inversion to a degree of nationalism and xenophobia. Internally and externally, these problems will continue to be present within the mainstream dominant culture.

In order not to oversimplify or underestimate the structure of the European Union, the problems facing Europe are unlike those facing the United States. The United States is dominated by one language (not yet official), tradition (combined), and inclusive geographic location. More importantly, the sovereign states share a common history and growth, perhaps a sense of manifest destiny (1841-1848). The roles of the state and federal governments are clearly defined and practical. Even if multiculturalism is not central to the issues at hand, the resulting empathy is serving as a process of further uniting and seeking out cultural universals among many particulars. Unlike the United States, the European Union does not have a common language, custom, or a sense of cultural unity. In the area of civic history, known past aggressions and alliances serve only to strain the relations among countries in the union, producing mistrust and civil discord. These diverging facts make the attempted union problematic. Unless a union of culture, including language, is attempted, the process of unification will be impossible. There must be recognition of the underlying philosophical role concerning cultural adaptation.

Taking an evolutionary view of xenophobia, the hidden biases steeped within culture are evident. The smaller the population of a group, the greater the degree of xenophobia for cultural purity will be seen in the face of cultural incursion. Additionally, the use of natural recourses becomes another factor in the cost-benefit analysis faced by ethnic groups. Although phobias are considered irrational, the emotional sediment shared at a group level is legitimized politically, sometimes religiously. Whether the results are discrimination or a “holy war” of terror, the xenophobic actions have consequences in the global theater.

As a republic, the United States has shown great restraint toward those who display aggressive xenophobia actions. Attacks upon the sovereignty of the United States (September 11) are a declaration of war. Covert actions coupled with religious fervor sets the tone of future conflicts. This reality, in conjunction with a political socialistic “pie in the sky” mentality, creates a disjunction whereby the enemy and treason can flourish. Were the following statements xenophobic or statement of fact? Although a political statement is certain (conservative or liberal), xenophobic underpinnings are present in form of nationalistic ideology. It is easy to see how such statements can arouse emotional sediment. These alarming words, however functional and necessary they may be, can increase xenophobic reactions in others. In terms of individuality, these actions are not only justified but are beyond moral qualifications. Survival is essential, not optional.

The quandary that faces our species has been the subject for philosophers for centuries. Defining humanity in terms of ontology and teleology has given our species a start into understanding ourselves in relation to the world. Refinements in science have brought new insights into the human predicament. Advancements in biology and the cognitive sciences continue to redefine humanity. Perhaps accepting common values and traditions can be the beginning of reducing xenophobia, but its elimination will require something more critical than education. As evolution produced the question, evolution may someday give the answer.


Risk-Taking Behavior

A. Haydon , . C.T. Halpern , in Encyclopedia of Adolescence , 2011

Conclusions and Future Directions

There is no single cause of adolescent risk-taking behavior like all of human behavior, increased risk taking during adolescence is the result of dynamic and continuous interactions that occur across different levels of influence. Much work remains to be done to integrate our knowledge of adolescent risk behavior into a comprehensive theory of adolescent development , and to better understand the developmental function and importance of risk behaviors in general.

Although much of the research on adolescence represents a continuation of the ‘storm and stress’ perspective first described by G. Stanley Hall (and underscored in the quote that introduced this article), new ways of studying and conceptualizing adolescence – and adolescent risk behavior – that represent a more integrative approach are emerging. For example, the use of large-scale, longitudinal data sets provides a unique opportunity to distinguish patterns of adolescent risk taking that lead to negative developmental outcomes from those that are not associated with long-term dysfunction. Data sets that include information on the multiple domains of adolescent life also allow researchers to examine the ways in which adolescent risk taking coacts with other domains of social and personal experiences such as academic functioning, family interactions, and peer relationships.

The positive youth development approach, which gained prominence during the 1990s, reflects another important change in thinking. This perspective shifts emphasis from ‘storm and stress’ to a more strengths-based vision of adolescence, in which the intent is to facilitate healthy development and full preparation for adulthood rather than simply preventing problem behaviors. One important implication of the positive youth development approach is that it locates the causes of adolescent problem behavior and risk taking not solely within the individual, but also within the relationships and connections between adolescents and their communities. This emphasis on structural change and intervention underscores the need for programs and institutions that are better aligned with adolescents' developmental needs, support both growing autonomy and caring adult relationships, teach essential life skills, and provide opportunities to make meaningful contributions to the community. Such an approach goes beyond the prevention of adolescent risk behavior to encompass healthy development in the broadest sense.

When considered in this broader developmental context, the assertion that risk taking during adolescence is solely and universally destructive becomes indefensible. Instead, exploratory behaviors – which necessarily include some element of risk – are a critical part of individual growth. For example, entering into a romantic relationship during adolescence could be considered ‘risky’ for girls because of its association with moderate increases in depressive symptoms. However, adolescent romantic relationships also provide an opportunity to develop a sense of oneself as a worthy and competent romantic partner, and could therefore also be viewed as an ultimately positive form of risk taking. By experimenting with different roles and behaviors, adolescents can develop personal values, beliefs, and expectations learn to navigate social relationships and distinguish between adaptive and maladaptive behaviors and strategies. To the extent that exploration is limited, so too are these opportunities to develop and practice mature judgment. The role of researchers and policymakers, then, is to identify and promote social environments and personal resources that reduce the likelihood of negative consequences of adolescent risk taking without denying opportunities for exploration.


How to Defeat Xenophobia

This article was co-authored by Nancy Lin, Ph.D.. Dr. Nancy Lin is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist and the Owner of Go to Sleep San Diego, a private practice providing therapy for people suffering from insomnia, trauma, depression, and related problems. She is also trained in issues related to cultural diversity in mental health. Dr. Lin holds a Bachelors degree in Psychology from The University of California, Berkeley and a Masters degree in Medical Anthropology from the University of London, SOAS. She earned her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from The University of Massachusetts Boston and completed an APA-accredited internship and postdoctoral training at the VA San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS).

There are 12 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

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Xenophobia is a fear and stigmatization of foreigners. People who look different, speak a different language, or have different customs can appear threatening to those who are used to only one particular ethnic group, lifestyle or set of behaviors. [1] X Research source But xenophobia can be overcome, and you can take it on either directly or through community engagement and political action.


Psychological health during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic outbreak

Background: The current ongoing pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) has globally affected 213 countries and territories with more than 2.5 million confirmed cases and thousands of casualties. The unpredictable and uncertain COVID-19 outbreak has the potential of adversely affecting the psychological health on individual and community level. Currently all efforts are focused on the understanding of epidemiology, clinical features, mode of transmission, counteract the spread of the virus, and challenges of global health, while crucially significant mental health has been overlooked in this endeavor.

Method: This review is to evaluate past outbreaks to understand the extent of adverse effects on psychological health, psychological crisis intervention, and mental health management plans. Published previous and current articles on PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Elsevier about psychological impact of infectious diseases outbreaks and COVID-19 has been considered and reviewed.

Comments: COVID-19 is leading to intense psychosocial issues and comprising mental health marking a secondary health concern all around the world. Globally implementing preventive and controlling measures, and cultivating coping and resilience are challenging factors modified lifestyle (lockdown curfew, self-isolation, social distancing and quarantine) conspiracy theories, misinformation and disinformation about the origin, scale, signs, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment global socioeconomic crisis travel restrictions workplace hazard control postponement and cancellation of religious, sports, cultural and entertainment events panic buying and hoarding incidents of racism, xenophobia, discrimination, stigma, psychological pressure of productivity, marginalization and violence overwhelmed medical centers and health organizations, and general impact on education, politics, socioeconomic, culture, environment and climate - are some of the risk factors to aggravate further problems.

Keywords: COVID-19 coping coronavirus pandemic mental health mindfulness and well-being misinfodemics psychological problems psychosocial issues resilience social and behavioral epidemiology stigma.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.


Neuroimaging of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: a targeted review

The goal of this article is to provide a selective and targeted review of the neuroimaging literature on psychopathic tendencies and antisocial behavior and to explore the extent to which this literature supports recent cognitive neuroscientific models of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. The literature reveals that individuals who present with an increased risk for reactive, but not instrumental, aggression show increased amygdala responses to emotionally evocative stimuli. This is consistent with suggestions that such individuals are primed to respond strongly to an inappropriate extent to threatening or frustrating events. In contrast, individuals with psychopathic tendencies show decreased amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex responses to emotionally provocative stimuli or during emotional learning paradigms. This is consistent with suggestions that such individuals face difficulties with basic forms of emotional learning and decision making.

Conflict of interest statement

Disclosure No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.


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An Overview Of Selective Memory

Most people have heard the term &ldquoselective memory&rdquo at least once in their lives. Generally, this is used critically or sarcastically nevertheless, the ability to truly understand the ins and outs of selective memory and all that it entails can truly come in handy.

First and foremost, selective memory (also sometimes referred to as selective amnesia) is clinically defined as &ldquothe ability to retrieve certain facts and events but not others.&rdquo In most cases, an individual who genuinely experiences selective amnesia may forget certain significant events or milestones in their lives, such as skills, friendships, relationships, abilities, or even prior traumatic experiences.

Potential Triggers Of Selective Memory

Many scientists and psychologists have devoted countless hours to studying selective memory and potential factors that can trigger its occurrence. Even though new research is conducted each day, an article published in Frontiers in Psychology noted that emotional influences can either enhance or impair learning and retention of new information.

Imbalanced Emotions

Individuals who have personality disorders or other similar ailments may be more susceptible to emotional highs and lows. A great example of this is bipolar disorder, which is generally associated with manic highs and depressive lows. Extreme, emotional highs and lows are moreover linked to mental functions, similarly to memory. People who have various personality disorders may experience a phenomenon where their feelings are so intense that they outweigh the proper recollection of an event. This is clinically known as disassociation, which is regarded as a rather extreme form of selective memory.

Poor Nutrition

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Another potential factor involved in selective memory comes in the form of poor dieting. The food that people consume impacts their lives in more ways than they can begin to imagine. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that certain foods can have long-term, adverse impacts on an individual&rsquos memory and disturb their thinking capabilities.

Preservatives, processed foods/drinks, chemical additives, and foods with high amounts of sugar are all linked to negative effects on the brain. For this reason (and many others), the consumption of healthy foods (fruits, fish, vegetables, poultry, etc.) is strongly encouraged. Processed, sugary foods may taste good however, that doesn&rsquot mean that they are good.

Human Willpower

People do have the power to repress, and eventually forget, certain memories, states an article from Telegraph. Intentionally repressing a memory for long enough can cause one to forget it. This occurs because the brain becomes active when someone purposefully works to forget something.

While selective memory is generally regarded as a negative happening, there are certain instances where it can come in handy. A great example of this is in cases of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other painful events that may do more harm than good. It is inadvisable to repress memories as a manner of dealing with challenges from the past. Unresolved, buried issues tend to fester and ooze out in unhealthy manners if they are not dealt with. Therefore, handling problems as they arise is better and much more constructive than simply attempting to forget them.

However, human willpower is sometimes a component that can prompt or enable selective memory.

Diseases/Disorders/Aging

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The human brain and body are always changing. Unfortunately, not all changes are great, especially as people age. Many side effects of aging can manifest in the form of memory problems. Sadly, one symptom of various memory issues can be selective memory or a form of it. Common memory disorders of this nature include, but are not limited to Alzheimer&rsquos disease, Parkinson&rsquos disease, amnesia, stress, dementia, etc.

More often than not, a healthy lifestyle (exercise, human interactions, nutritious diet) can serve as a deterrent to the memory above ailments.

A Clinical Analysis Of Selective Memory

Many people fail to realize just how layered selective memory can be. Many of these variations come in the form of amnesia or hypermnesia. First and foremost, it is very important to understand that amnesia comes in various forms and degrees. In its mildest capacity, a mild amnesiac may struggle to remember certain facts or pieces of information. In more severe degrees, an individual who experiences amnesia may lose ownership of virtually all of their memories. Extreme amnesia generally surpasses selective memory while the latter only pertains to certain memories, the former (at its worst) causes the person to lose touch with all of their memories.

Another form of amnesia (and selective memory) manifests in the form of forgetting various periods within an event. Clinically known as lacunar amnesia, someone who suffers from this ailment may subsequently lose the memory of seconds, hours, or even days of a particular event. Sometimes lacunar amnesia is referred to as a blackout however, it is usually engendered by drugs, alcohol, trauma, or other unpleasantries.

Evocation amnesia could almost be regarded as a distant cousin of lacunar amnesia. Instead of forgetting various periods within an event, this particular offshoot of selective memory prompts the afflicted individual to lose recollection of the specific names of individuals or inanimate objects. For instance, an evocative amnesiac might meet various people at events, yet subsequently, fail to remember their names. Oddly enough, the plighted individual may remember everything else about the people they encountered other than their names.

Finally comes hypermnesia. This particular variation of selective memory may be somewhat confusing to most people. In a sense, hypermnesia is the reverse of amnesia. Rather than the decreasing lack of memory (amnesia), hypermnesia occurs when an individual eerily seems to remember information all at once. This phenomenon is much rarer than amnesia and is most reported amongst individuals who have undergone near-death experiences or had epilepsy at one point or another.

Personality Traits And Selective Memory

The various forms and clinical analyses regarding selective memory inherently beg to question: are certain personality types more susceptible to selective memory than others?

Individual personality traits may have significant impacts on how someone recalls a prior situation or encounter. In layman&rsquos terms, selective memory is a matter of perception. For instance, people who tend to be more anxious or on edge are likelier to remember a situation in a manner that suits their desires and wishes.

In its most insidious and malicious form, selective memory is sometimes regarded as a common trait amongst narcissists and other malignantly self-centered individuals. However, when regarding narcissists, selective memory tends to be more calculated and intentional, rather than clinical.

Narcissists with an agenda may, therefore, seek to manipulate certain people or circumstances by telling revised versions of an occurrence. They may purposefully leave out certain information or details to cast themselves in a favorable light or paint a picture that simply isn&rsquot accurate.

However, even amongst narcissists, there are some questions and debates regarding selective memory. While some individuals maintain that narcissists gleefully lie and misrepresent situations for the sake of improving their self-image, other people have stated that narcissists truly do believe what they&rsquore saying. In other words, the latter group believes that narcissists have succumbed to such an intense state of delusion that they have fallen for their con and believe their claims, regardless of how misleading or duplicitous they may be.

A Final Word

To some extent, every person has their degree of &ldquoselective memory.&rdquo After all, memories are not clear-cut they are not black and white. Two people could witness the same event and still leave with at least somewhat conflicting viewpoints. Every person&rsquos thoughts and personal interpretations are, to some degree, influenced by who they are, how they perceive the world, and their prior experiences.

Selective memory can become problematic when it seriously impacts one&rsquos ability to interact with others and recall events. Someone who experiences genuine and clinical selective memory should seek out the services of a licensed professional and determine what their options are.

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BetterHelp also exists as an alternative for those who may be going through tough times or otherwise feeling unsure of themselves. Every person has their battles and crosses to bear. Virtually everyone needs help at one point or another. This is nothing to be ashamed of. A critical component of growing and evolving as an individual pertains to the ability to ask for guidance or assistance when necessary. A study published in Perspectives on Psychological Science found that computer-delivered memory training helped alleviate the symptoms of participants living with generalized anxiety disorders, cognitive biases, and other related conditions. It also found that patients undergoing behavioral therapy enjoyed online session homework, phone coaching, and text messages, which are three key tools used in cognitive behavioral therapy. Patients reported improvements in their cognitive recall over several sessions.

If you are not sure about pursuing face-to-face therapy, or if such resources are not available in your area, online therapy is another option. Although online therapy is a relatively new tool in the realm of mental health resources, it&rsquos an effective and convenient alternative to traditional therapy. Platforms such as BetterHelp offer affordable options such as phone calls, video conferences, and live messaging. You can attend these sessions without leaving your home, on your own schedule, and with a licensed therapist who is uniquely trained to help you.

Regardless of which kind of therapy you are considering, BetterHelp will always be here as an option for anyone who may be struggling or simply through the innate ups and downs of life.

If you or a loved one ever feel the need to contact BetterHelp for any reason, you can do so by clicking here. Here are just a few reviews from those who have reached out for BetterHelp:

&ldquoBeth has been absolutely amazing! I was wary about the platform at first and doing so much work via messaging, but it feels easy with Beth. She remembers our conversations and checks in with me if I don&rsquot say anything for a few days. She&rsquos able to make observations about my life without taking sides or making me feel judged. I feel so fortunate to be working with her.&rdquo

&ldquoAmy makes great attempts to try and figure out how to best approach the clients needs for each session. She&rsquos willing to listen if that&rsquos what you need. She&rsquos willing to ask questions if that&rsquos what&rsquos needed. She also gives great examples for your current needs. I love that she&rsquos explicitly connects current reflections back to the goals that were shared. She&rsquos a great listener, and she shares great advice."


A selective review of selective attention research from the past century

Research on attention is concerned with selective processing of incoming sensory information. To some extent, our awareness of the world depends on what we choose to attend, not merely on the stimulation entering our senses. British psychologists have made substantial contributions to this topic in the past century. Celebrated examples include Donald Broadbent's filter theory of attention, which set the agenda for most subsequent work and Anne Treisman's revisions of this account, and her later feature-integration theory. More recent contributions include Alan Allport's prescient emphasis on the relevance of neuroscience data, and John Duncan's integration of such data with psychological theory. An idiosyncratic but roughly chronological review of developments is presented, some practical and clinical implications are briefly sketched, and future directions suggested. One of the biggest changes in the field has been the increasing interplay between psychology and neuroscience, which promises much for the future. A related change has been the realization that selection attention is best thought of as a broad topic, encompassing a range of selective issues, rather than as a single explanatory process.