# Is there any evidence for the distinction between undergrad and postgrad mathematics?

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Baron-Cohen has conducted studies [1,2] investigating whether autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are related to mathematical or scientific ability. These have, however, focused mostly on (Cambridge) undergraduates or winners of the UK Mathematics Olympiad.

Interestingly, Baron-Cohen found in [2] that Olympiad winners scored the highest in the AQ test ($$mathrm{AQ}colon 24.5,mathrm{ SD}colon 5.7$$), with the second highest scoring group being the mathematics students ($$mathrm{AQ}colon 21.5,mathrm{ SD}colon 6.4$$).$$^1$$ This leads one to conjecture that autistic traits may be more prominent among individuals with higher mathematical ability.

While investigations on the relationship between autism and mathematical ability have been carried out [3,4], mostly of these focused on students at the undergraduate level or below. Furthermore, these studies may be focused on a completely different skill set than the one required for the practice of research mathematics.

Is there evidence for the distinction between undergraduate and postgraduate skills and studies especially from a biological or psychometric point of view?

Is the level of mathematics as done by undergraduates different from graduate students or professional mathematicians? There are very distinct skills required at various levels for example, a set of skills$$^2$$, such as good writing, abstract thinking, endurance$$^3$$, creativity, and problem solving for a research project. Is technical ability such as [4] "mathematical ability" through arithmetic problems, which focuses only on problem solving, a distinct set of skills that has been shown to be distinct in other studies?

Disclaimer: This question has been split from this one.

$$^1$$Note however that the sample is small: $$n=16$$ for UK Olympiad winners, $$n=85$$ for mathematics students.

$$^2$$Of course, there are also skills which individuals with ASCs may have trouble with, such as socialisation (mathematics is often described as an activity with a large social component by its practitioners).

$$^3$$In the sense of obsessing, possibly for years, with a research problem to solve it.

References

[1] Baron-Cohen, Simon, Sally Wheelwright, Amy Burtenshaw, and Esther Hobson. "Mathematical talent is linked to autism." Human nature 18, no. 2 (2007): 125-131.

[2] Baron-Cohen, Simon, Sally Wheelwright, Richard Skinner, Joanne Martin, and Emma Clubley. "The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians." Journal of autism and developmental disorders 31, no. 1 (2001): 5-17.

[3] Chiang, Hsu-Min, and Yueh-Hsien Lin. "Mathematical ability of students with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism: A review of literature." Autism 11, no. 6 (2007): 547-556.

[4] Bressan, Paola. "Systemisers are better at maths." Scientific reports 8, no. 1 (2018): 11636.

## What's the difference between MA and BSc Psychology?

Just wondered if you graduate with an MA in Psychology rather than a BSc are you at a disadvantage when applying for future Masters if you hoped to become a Clinical Psychologist? Apparently the MA is more social Science rather than Mathematical Science like the BSc so therefore it may not be considered as preferable as someone who has a BSc even though good unis like Edinburgh and Aberdeen offer it as an Undergraduate route.

### Not what you're looking for? Try&hellip

What? An MA is a masters degree. and a Bsc is a Bachelor of Science (ordinary 3 year degree). Now i've said that your post doesn't make much sense. unless ive just read it wrong :P

MA means a Masters of Arts.

Msci is a masters of science.

You may be thinking of the distinction between BA and BSc ?

MA = Masters degree in an Arts/Humanities subject or if you're at Cambridge or Oxford it could be any degree if you pay the extra charge for calling your degree something different.

BSc = Bachelor of Science degree i.e. the name of a normal 3 or 4 year science degree
BA = Bachelor of Arts i.e. the same thing for arts/humanities courses.

I've got a feeling all Scottish courses are MAs too (similar to Oxbridge). Maybe that's what you're thinking of?

Thanks for the replies. I understand the difference between the BSc and the BA but Unis like Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh offer an MA is Psychology, so I just wondered is it better in someway or is it better just to stick with a BSc??

(Original post by Student44)
Thanks for the replies. I understand the difference between the BSc and the BA but Unis like Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh offer an MA is Psychology, so I just wondered is it better in someway or is it better just to stick with a BSc??

A masters is always a higher qualification than a bachelor degree.

Psychology can be studdied as a art or a science (obvously an MA is a Master of Art and a BSc is a bachelor of science). I very much doubt it will affect your chances of obtaining a place on a post grad course as it is still a psychology degree at the end of the day. But as I said - a masters is a higer qualification regardless of wether it is an art or a science.

I personally studdied psychology as a science. Our uni's definition of psychology was therefore 'the study of human behaviour based on scientific empirical evidence'. I am not sure how it is defined if it is being studied as an art.

An MA is likely to be a longer course (perhaps 5 years - I think this is how glasgow do it as my husband did a 5 year MA in philosophy there). A Scottich Bsc is 3 years or 4 years with honors. A post grad masters will usually be a year or two on top of your undergrad degree.

Really? Care to elaborate and explain why, rather than just dismissing the information that others have kindly provided?

I was always under the impression that an MA was higher than a BA or a BSc, but perhaps you could tell me if, and why, I am mistaken.

I have just googled this and came across this website http://www.postgrad.com/editorial/uk_pg_programmes/ it says:

'Masters degrees are an award higher than a Bachelors degree. The difference between a Bachelors degree and a Masters degree is that while a Bachelors degree requires detailed and systematic knowledge and understanding of a general subject area, a Masters degree requires, in addition, critical skills and understanding, and a thorough knowledge of current trends and issues at the forefront of a specialist academic discipline.'

(Original post by xoxAngel_Kxox)
Really? Care to elaborate and explain why, rather than just dismissing the information that others have kindly provided?

I was always under the impression that an MA was higher than a BA or a BSc, but perhaps you could tell me if, and why, I am mistaken.

Okay. And the reason I didn't elaborate was only because I hadn't wanted to take the discussion too far off topic. Also, you've now rephrased things in a way that obliges me to answer somewhat differently from how I would have to the statement "a Masters is always higher than a Bachelors".

I was objecting to the absolutism of that "always", and thinking specifically of degrees awarded at Oxford. Until very recently that university offered bachelors degrees for most of its taught postgraduate courses in Arts and Social Sciences, they were typically called "B. Litt". An acceding to the comparatively recent globalisation of higher education and the need to attract foreign students saw them changed to Masters degrees for the designation. Some departments, though, resisted this, considering that their courses had a brand name that would carry them through, the BPhil and BCL are flagship courses and the BMus is still awarded. Since Oxford grads can supplicate their BAs for MAs, you'll see people with the qualifications "MA, BPhil", where the BPhil is the higher qualification.

Closer to the question asked, it's often the case in Scotland that arts degrees will be awarded 'MA (hons)' and Science degrees 'BSc (hons)' where these are studied over the same duration at the same university (in both cases these would be 4 year degrees). The claim that the one is worth more than the other would hold water, then, only if it were maintained that Arts degrees are somehow intrinsically more valuable than degrees in the Sciences. Where a university is offering a degree which can have either qualification, this likely means there is opprotunity to pursue an arts or sciences pathway with regard to module choices. This is seen, for example, in Geography, where a concentration in Physical or Human Geography options might lead to the awarding of a different degree title.

## Self-directed study

One of the first things you’ll notice about Masters programmes is that they tend to include far fewer concurrent units of study or ‘modules’ than undergraduate courses. On a Masters course you may find yourself only studying two modules per semester, for a total of four across an entire degree. This will usually be reflected in your timetable, which might only feature a few hours of formal contact time with tutors and peers each week.

Each full-time semester of your programme will still account for 60 credits though – a third of your degree’s total value. So, where are all those credits (and their associated hours of learning) coming from? The answer, of course, is ‘self-directed study’. In summary, this involves:

• Reading around highlighted materials for each stage of your course
• Identifying important themes and thinking critically about these in advance of scheduled meetings with your tutors and peers

Even though the majority of Masters courses are delivered as ‘taught postgraduate’ programmes (the exceptions are research degrees such as the MRes) you’ll be expected to come to seminars or workshop sessions having already engaged with the subject under discussion and ideally identified and critiqued some relevant scholarship.

Your course tutor will introduce complex ideas and explain key issues, but teaching and discussion sessions will function much more as a forum in which yours and your peers’ ideas can be discussed, reflected upon and developed.

#### Taught vs research Masters

Unsure about the difference between taught and research Masters? We’ve explained the most important contrasts between these kinds of qualification, from fees to PhD prep.

To aid readability, in the rest of this paper we will shorten some assessment form (e.g. ’closed book exam’ and ’open book exam’ for the two forms of written examination)

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Through the Bologna initiatives and support of the European Union, Europe is unifying and standardising especially the structure of their masters' programmes, making them more and more accessible to foreign students.

An often cited advantage of the European universities is an advantageous cost/quality ratio. In Europe, especially continental Europe, universities are heavily subsidized by their national governments. In Germany, Scandinavia or Eastern Europe for instance, most masters programmes have been traditionally totally free of charge. Recently, these governments are discussing and/or introducing tuition fees. E.g. Sweden started charging tuition for non-EU students in 2010 and Finland started charging non-EU/EEA students in 2017. [1]

In Austria, one obtains a bachelor's degree after 3 years of study and a master's degree after 2 more years of study. This is true for both the "research-oriented university" sector as well as the "university of applied sciences" sector which was established in the 1990s.

Medicine and dentistry pose an exception these studies are not divided into bachelor's and master's degree, but take 6 years to complete and the degree obtained is called "Dr. med." (However this is not an equivalent to other doctoral degrees, as one writes a "diploma thesis" and not a "doctoral thesis" or "dissertation".)

In addition to traditional master's degrees, Austrian universities also offer the Master of Advanced Studies which is a non-consecutive continuing education degree the degree. MAS programs tend to be interdisciplinary and tend to be focused toward meeting the needs of professionals rather than academics.

Before the Bologna process, the traditional Austrian equivalent to the master's degree was the Diplomstudium, leading to the title Diplom-Ingenieur (female title: Diplom-Ingenieurin)(Abbreviation: "Dipl.-Ing." or "DI") in engineering or Magister (female: Magistra)(Abbreviation: "Mag.") in almost every discipline. The Diplomstudium took about 4–6 years of study.

In Belgium, possessing a master's degree means that one has completed a higher education (usually university or college) programme of 4 or 5 years. Before the Bologna process most university degrees required 4 years of studies (leading to a licence), but some programmes required 5 years of study. An example in the field of education in business/management was the 5-year programme of "Handelsingenieur" (Dutch) or "Ingénieur de Gestion" (French) (English: "Commercial Engineer") with an important amount of mathematics and sciences, and which corresponds to an M.Sc. in Management. This degree co-existed with a graduate degree in business economics (4 years) named "Licentiaat in toegepaste economische wetenschappen" (Dutch) or "Licence en sciences économiques appliquées" (French) (English: "Licence in applied economics").

In Denmark, a Master's degree is awarded. The MA and M.Sc. degrees and other master's degrees are distinguished. The MA and M.Sc. degrees are similar to a traditional Master's Programme, which are obtained by completing a higher education with a typical duration of five years on an accredited Danish university. Other master's degrees can be taken on an accredited Danish university, but these are made as adult (part-time) education such as the Master of IT (abbreviated M. IT) degree.

A large number of subdivisions exist, usually designating the area of education (e.g. cand.theol., cand.arch. and cand.jur.), though some have more vague definitions (cand.mag., cand.scient., cand.polyt., and cand.scient.techn., each of which encompass broad, overlapping areas of science).

The Bologna process has widely prompted master's degree education to consist of either 120 ECTS or 180 ECTS credit cycles, where one academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS-credits that are equivalent to 1,500–1,800 hours of study. In most cases, these will take 2 to 3 years respectively to complete.

• 1st cycle: typically 180–240 ECTS credits, usually awarding a bachelor's degree. The European Higher Education Area did not introduce the Bachelor with Honours programme, which allows graduates with a "BA hons." degree.
• 2nd cycle: typically 90–120 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 on 2nd-cycle level). Usually awarding a master's degree.

In Finland, the introduction of the Bologna Process has standardized most of the degrees into the European model. The master's degree takes 2–3 years (120 ECTS units) after the bachelor's degree. In English-speaking usage, the degree title is named after the particular faculty of study. In Finnish, the degree is called maisteri in most fields. When precision is needed, the term ylempi korkeakoulututkinto is used to denote all degrees of Master's level. Literally, this translates into English as higher diploma of higher education.

Medicine-related fields of medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine pose an exception to Bologna system. In medical fields, the Licenciate (Finnish: lisensiaatti, Swedish: licensiat) is an equivalent degree, the completion of which takes five (dentistry) or six years (medicine and veterinary), while the Bachelor of Medicine's degree (Finnish: lääketieteen kandidaatti) is gained after second year of studies. In fields other than medicine, the Licentiate's degree is a post-graduate degree higher than Master's but lower than doctor's.

In Engineering, the higher degree is either diplomi-insinööri (Swedish: diplomingenjör, literally "Engineer with diploma") or arkkitehti (Swedish: arkitekt, English: Architect ) although in international use MSc is used. In Pharmacy, the degree is proviisori (Swedish: provisor). All such degrees retaining their historical name are classified as master's degrees (ylempi korkeakoulututkinto) and in English usage, they are always translated as master's degrees. Some other master's degrees give the right to use the traditional title of the degree-holder. Most importantly, the degree of Master of Science in Economics and Business Administration gives the right to use the title of ekonomi, while the Masters of Science in Agriculture and Forestry may use the titles of metsänhoitaja (Forester) or agronomi (Agronomist) depending on their field of study.

In France the Bologna Process has standardised most of the degrees into the three-cycle Bologna model, of which the master's degree is the second cycle. A master's degree takes 2 or 3 years (120 ECTS units) after the Licentiate. Many countries follow the French model (e.g. the Francophone regions in Switzerland, Belgium, Lebanon, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia). The following are considered master's degrees:

• The master's diploma (diplôme de master) is the most common master's degree. It is awarded mainly by universities, although some grandes écoles also deliver master's diplomas.
• The Engineer's degree diploma is awarded by grandes écoles. Not all grandes écoles programs are accredited by the State.
• The Architect's degree.
• Some degrees from Schools of Fine Arts.
• Qualifications recognised at Level 1 (EQF Level 7) of the répertoire national des certifications professionelles (national register of professional certificates).

France is also host to a number of private American-style universities like The American University of Paris or Schiller International University, which offer US-accredited master's degrees in Europe. Admission into these master's programs requires a completed American undergraduate degree or an equivalent French/European degree.

Due to the EU-wide Bologna process, the traditional German academic degrees Diplom and Magister have mostly been replaced by the undergraduate Bachelor (3-4 year study programme) and postgraduate Master's degree (1-2 year study programme).

In Germany the Diplom (first degree after (usually) 4–6 years - from either a Universität (University), a Technische Hochschule or a Kunsthochschule with university status) and the Magister had traditionally been equivalated to the master's degree, the Magister being a degree after the study of two or three subjects (one main and one or two subsidiary subjects), as common in Humanities or Liberal Arts, whereas the Diplom is awarded after the study of one subject, commonly found in Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, Formal sciences and some Applied Sciences. The Fachhochschulen or Universities of Applied Sciences conferred the Diplom (FH), whose length of study is between the bachelor's and master's degree.

Under the harmonised system there is no legal academic difference between the bachelor's and master's degrees conferred by the Fachhochschulen and Universitäten.

The German Meister qualification for a master craftsman is neither a degree nor is it comparable to the academic master's degree. It, however, qualifies the holder to study at a University or Fachhochschule, whether the Meister holds the regular entry qualification (Abitur or Fachhochschulreife) or not. [2]

Postgraduate master's degrees in Ireland can either be taught degrees involving lectures, examination and a short dissertation, or research degrees. They usually are one of: MA (except Trinity College Dublin, where this is an undergraduate degree awarded 21 terms after matriculation such as in MAs awarded by the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge and University of Dublin) or MA, M.Sc., MBA, MAI, ME/MEng/MEngSc, MPhil, LLM, MLitt, MArch, MAgrSc, MSocSc, MCH, MAcc, MEconSc.

In most established 3rd level institutes which award post graduate qualifications (NUI, DIT) a distinction between an MA qualification and an MPhil qualification. An MA is a combination of taught (classroom) and research-based modules, whilst an MPhil is composed exclusively of research-based learning. [3]

The Magister in Arte Ingeniaria (MAI), literally meaning 'Master in the Art of Engineering', is awarded by the University of Dublin, Ireland, and is more usually referred to as Master of Engineering. While still available (via two routes), historically it was the engineering master's degree taken by the university's BAI graduates. Today the more common engineering master's degree in the University of Dublin is the M.Sc..

A Master of Business Studies (MBS) refers to a qualification in the degree of master that can be obtained by students of recognized universities and colleges who complete the relevant approved programmes of study, pass the prescribed examinations, and fulfil all other prescribed conditions. An MBS can be studied in the following areas: Electronic Business, Finance, Human Resource Management, International Business, Management Information System, Management & Organisation Studies, Management Consultancy, Marketing, Project Management, Strategic Management & Planning and can be obtained from many universities in Ireland including University College Dublin.

The Pontifical University St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, offer a Masters in Theology (MTh) and Masters in Liturgical Music (MLM) [4] the Church of Ireland Theological Institute offers a Masters in Theology (MTh) programme. [5]

University College Cork and Mary Immaculate College, Limerick offer a Master of Education (M.Ed), also the Mater Dei Institute now at St. Patricks Campus, Dublin City University had a Masters in Religious Education (MREd), now more commonly awarded as an MA.

The other universities in Ireland usually award a MEngSc, M.E., MEng or M.Sc. for their postgraduate master's degree in engineering.

The old university system (Vecchio Ordinamento) consisted in a unique course, extended from four to five years or maximum of six (only Medicine), with a variable period (six-twelve months usually) for the thesis work. After the thesis discussion, students got the Master's Degree, simply called Laurea.

This system was reformed in 1999/2000 to comply to the Bologna process directives. The new university system (Nuovo Ordinamento) includes two levels of degrees: a three-year Bachelor's degree, called Laurea di Primo Livello or just Laurea (e.g. Laurea di Primo Livello in Ingegneria Elettronica is Bachelor of Science in Electronic Engineering) and a two-year course of specialization, leading to a master's degree called Laurea di Secondo Livello, Laurea Magistrale (e.g. Laurea Specialistica in Ingegneria Elettronica is Masters of Science in Electronic Engineering). Both degrees include a thesis work with final discussion.

A student can apply for the Ph.D. level course, called Dottorato di Ricerca, only after getting a Master's degree.

Medicine and some other school ("Facoltà"), notably Law, have adopted the reformed system only partially, keeping the previous unique course. Medicine is therefore still a six-year course followed, possibly, by the specialization, requiring from three to five years more.

However, these Facoltà also have other courses organized according to the new system (e.g., Tecniche di radiologia medica for Medicine, Consulente del lavoro for Law)

In 2002, the Dutch degree system was changed to abide by international standards. This process was complicated by the fact that the Dutch higher education system has two separate branches, Hoger Beroeps Onderwijs (HBO, which indicates College or "University of Professional Education" level), and Wetenschappelijk Onderwijs (WO, which indicates University level). HBO level education focuses more on practical and professional education while WO is academic and scientific.

Before the Bachelor/Master system was introduced, HBO graduates received the title baccalaureus (with the corresponding pre-nominal abbreviation "bc."), which was rarely used. On the other hand, the HBO graduates with an engineering degree used the degree ingenieur, with pre-nominal abbreviation "ing.", which was (and still is) used quite commonly. WO degrees consisted of several different titles, such as doctorandus (pre-nominal abbreviated to drs., corresponds to MA or MSc), ingenieur (ir. for WO level, corresponds to MSc) and meester in de rechten (mr., corresponds to LL.M.) These former titles are no longer granted (although they are still used, protected, and interchangeable with MA and MSc titles). The title of doctor (dr., corresponding to the PhD degree) is still awarded.

Prior to the education reform, a single program leading to the doctorandus, ingenieur or meester degree was in effect, which comprised the same course load as the Bachelor and Master programs put together. Those who had already started the doctorandus, ingenieur or meester program could, upon completing it, opt for the old degree (before their name), or simply use the master's degree (behind their name) in accordance with the new standard. Since these graduates do not have a separate bachelor's degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the master's degree is their first academic degree.

In the new system, completed college (HBO) degrees are equivalent to a bachelor's degree and are abbreviated to "B" with a subject suffix. Universities (WO) grant a bachelor's degree for the general portion of the curriculum. This degree is a "Bachelor of Science" or "Bachelor of Arts" with the appropriate suffix.

Before one is admitted to a Master's program, one must have obtained a bachelor's degree in the same field of study at the same level. This means that someone with a HBO Bachelor's degree can normally not start directly with a WO Master, their scientific deficiencies are bridged in a half-year or full year program after which they can continue into the WO Master program. There might also be additional requirements such as a certain higher than average GPA, sometimes it's possible to complete the bridging program parallel to the HBO Bachelor. Note that completing this program does not grant the student a WO Bachelor's degree but merely entrance to the Master and that some two year WO Masters allow HBO Bachelor's degree holders in directly.

All fully completed curricula in the Netherlands are equivalent to master's degrees with the addition of a "of Science" or "of Arts" to distinguish them from HBO Master's degrees, which until 2014 were simply known as Master. After 2014 "of Science" and "of Arts" are also granted to HBO masters. WO Master's degrees focus on specialization in a sub-area of the general bachelor's degree subject and typically take 1 year except for research masters, engineering studies and medical school where the Master takes 2, 2 and 3 years, respectively.

HBO Master's are usually started only after several years of work and are similarly focused on specialization. The title is signified by the abbreviation M and therefore an MBA would indicate a HBO Master's degree in business administration, but use of the MBA title is protected and it can only be granted by accredited schools.

As a result of the Bologna-process and the Quality reform, the degree system of Norwegian higher education consists of the two main levels Bachelor's degree and Master's degree. A Bachelor's degree at a Norwegian university/university college is equivalent to an undergraduate degree and takes three years (with the exception of the teaching courses, where a bachelor's degree lasts for four years). The master's degrees are either fully integrated five-year programmes (admission does not require undergraduate degree) leading up to a graduate degree, or two-year courses at graduate level which require an already completed undergraduate degree. Following the graduate level, education is given at the doctoral level, usually through a four-year research fellowship leading to a PhD.

Before the implementation of this system, various titles were given in accordance with the field of study and the length of the course. For instance, a three-year undergraduate degree in engineering would give the title "høgskoleingeniør" (Bachelor's degree), and a 4,5 to 5 year graduate degree in engineering would give the title "sivilingeniør" (Master's degree). That being said, these titles are still very common and are, although formally abolished, degrees granted earlier are still being used, also by academic personnel.

Currently there are two models of higher education in Poland.

In the traditional model, a master's degree is awarded after completion of a university curriculum — a 5-year programme in science courses at a university or other similar institution, with a project in the final year called magisterium (it can be translated as a Master of Arts or a Master of Science thesis) that often requires carrying out research in a given field. An MA degree is called a magister (abbreviated mgr) except for medical education, where it is called a lekarz (this gives the holder the right to use the title of physician and surgeon), a lekarz weterynarii in the veterinary field and a dentysta in field of dentistry. Universities of technology usually give the title of magister inżynier (abbreviated mgr inż.) corresponding to an MSc Eng degree.

More and more institutions introduce another model, which as of 2005 is still less popular. In this model, following the Bologna process directives, higher education is split into a 3 to 4-year Bachelor programme ending with a title of licencjat (non-technical) or inżynier (technical fields), and a 2-year programme (uzupełniające studia magisterskie) giving the title of magister or magister inżynier. Nevertheless, even in these institutions, it is often possible to bridge the Bachelor education directly into the Master programme, without formally obtaining the licencjat degree, thus shortening the time needed for completing the education slightly.

Depending on field and school, the timing may be slightly different.

### Prior to the Bologna Process Edit

Prior to the full implementation of the Bologna Process in July 2007 degrees in Portugal could be divided between Bacharelato (three years), Licenciatura (five years), Mestrado (Licenciatura + 2–3 years of postgraduate studies) and doutoramento (Mestrado + 4–6 years of postgraduate studies).

### After the Bologna Process Edit

With the full implementation of the Bologna process in July 2007, a Licenciatura (3 years) with the criteria for the first cycle and a Mestrado ('Licenciatura' + 2 years) in line with the criteria for the second cycle. There are other postgraduate titles after some of these cycles.

### Prior to the Bologna Process Edit

Prior to the full implementation of the Bologna Process in July 2007 degrees in Sweden could be divided between kandidat (three years), magister (four years), licentiat (magister + 2–3 years of postgraduate studies) and doktor (magister + 4–5 years of postgraduate studies).

#### Engineering Edit

In engineering disciplines M. Sc was called civilingenjör, a four and a half year academic program concluded with a thesis. There was no direct equivalent to a B.Sc, however, a three-year engineering degree with a more practical focus called högskoleingenjör was close.

### After the Bologna Process Edit

With the full implementation of the Bologna process in July 2007, a kandidat (3 years) and a master (five years) was introduced in line with the criteria for the second cycle. The magister will still exist alongside the new master, but is expected to be largely neglected in favour of the new, internationally recognized degree. The M. Sc of engineering, civilingenjör, was expanded to five years and a new B. Sc was introduced to coexist with the unaltered högskoleingenjör

### Integrated Master's degrees Edit

In the UK, many universities now have four-year integrated master's programmes (five years in Scotland) mainly in STEM subjects, often with a research project or Dissertation in the final year. An integrated master's degree typically includes a year of study at master's level, along with three years (four in Scotland) at bachelor's level. The awards for these may be named after the subject, so a course in mathematics would earn a Master in Mathematics degree, (abbreviated to MMath), or have a general title such as MSci (Master in Science at most universities but Master of Natural Sciences at Cambridge) or MLibArts (Master of Liberal Arts). Examples include MChem, MPharm, MEng, MMath, MPhys. Integrated master's degrees are considered qualification at master's level and are second-cycle qualification on the qualifications framework for the European higher education area established under the Bologna Process. [6] [7]

### Postgraduate Master's degrees Edit

Postgraduate master's degrees in the United Kingdom can either be taught degrees involving lectures, examination and a short dissertation, or research degrees (normally MPhil, MLitt or MRes programmes). Taught Master's programmes involve 1 or 2 years of full-time study. The programmes are often very intensive and demanding, and concentrate on one very specialised area of knowledge. Some universities also offer a Master's by Learning Contract scheme, where a candidate can specify his or her own learning objectives these are submitted to supervising academics for approval, and are assessed by means of written reports, practical demonstrations and presentations.

#### Taught postgraduate Master's degrees Edit

The most common types of postgraduate taught master's degrees are the Master of Arts (MA) awarded in Arts, Humanities, Theology and Social Sciences and the Master of Science (MSc) awarded in pure and applied Science. A number of taught programs in Social Sciences also receive the Master of Science (MSc) degree (e.g. MSc Development Studies at the London School of Economics and University of Bath).

However, some universities - particularly those in Scotland - award the Master of Letters (MLitt) to students in the Arts, Humanities, Divinity and Social Sciences, often with the suffix (T) to indicate it is a taught degree, to avoid confusion with the MLitt offered as a research degree. In the University of Oxford, on the other hand, the MPhil (which is elsewhere reserved for research degrees) is a taught master's degree (normally also including a short research component) and the MSc can be either taught or by research. [8] [9] the MLitt is also offered as a research degree in the humanities. [10] Some other universities, such as the University of Glasgow, previously used the designation MPhil for both taught and research master's degrees, but have recently changed the taught appellation to MLitt. In the University of Cambridge, the main taught master's degree is the MSt (Master of Studies). [11]

In Business Schools a special Masters of Business Administration MBA type of a degree is available to those who have business practice experience. For example, Salford Business School in Greater Manchester offers a degree which is only available to those who can show professional experience.

In Law the standard taught degree is the Master of Laws, but certain courses may lead to the award of MA or MLitt.

Until recently, both the undergraduate and postgraduate master's degrees were awarded without grade or class (like the class of an honours degree). Nowadays however, Master's degrees may be classified into a maximum of four categories (Distinction, Merit, Pass or Fail), while others can have a more simplified form of assessment by only distinguishing between a Pass or a Fail.

#### Research postgraduate Master's degrees Edit

The Master of Philosophy (MPhil) is a research degree awarded for the completion of a thesis, with the title being reserved for "extended master's courses that typically involve a substantial element of research or equivalent enquiry". [12] It is a shorter version of the PhD and some universities routinely enter potential PhD students into the MPhil programme and allow them to upgrade to the full PhD programme a year or two into the course. Advanced candidates for a taught postgraduate Master's sometimes undertake the MPhil as it is considered a more prestigious degree, but it may also mean that the student could not afford or could not complete the full PhD. A student who fails to reach the standard required for a PhD may only be awarded an MPhil if they have successfully reached the standard for a master's degree. [13]

The Master of Research (MRes) degree is a more structured and organised version of the MPhil, usually designed to prepare a student for a career in research. For example, an MRes may combine individual research with periods of work placement in research establishments.

The Master of Letters (MLitt) degree is a two-year research degree at many universities, including Cambridge and the ancient Scottish universities, and is generally awarded when a student cannot or will not complete the final year(s) of their PhD and so writes their research up for the MLitt. Because MLitt is also used for a taught degree, the suffix (T) or (R) for taught or research is often added, so the more prestigious two-year research degree is called MLitt (R).

Like the PhD, the MPhil and MRes degrees are generally awarded without class or grade as a pass (the standard grade) or can, rarely, be awarded with a distinction.

### Non-master's level qualifications Edit

#### MAs in Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin Edit

The universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin award master's degrees to BAs without further examination, where seven years after matriculation have passed, and (in some but not all cases) upon payment of a nominal fee. It is commonplace for recipients of the degree to have graduated several years previously and to have had little official contact with the university or academic life since then. The only real significance of these degrees is that they historically conferred voting rights in University elections, it was seen as the point at which one became eligible to teach at the University and certain other privileges e.g. the right to dine at the holder's college's high table. They still do confer some restricted and rarely used voting rights. The MAs awarded by Oxford and Cambridge are colloquially known as the Oxbridge MA, and that from Dublin as the Trinity MA, and would be usually distinguished respectively: MA (Oxon), MA (Cantab) and MA (Dubl), "Oxon" here being an abbreviation for Oxoniensis (of Oxford), "Cantab" for Cantabrigiensis (of Cambridge) and, "Dubl" for Dubliniensis (of Dublin). The Universities of Cambridge and Dublin also offer an MA to certain senior staff - both academic and non-academic - after a number of years' employment with the university. The MAs awarded by Oxford and Cambridge are not considered academic qualifications. [7]

Until the advent of the modern research university in the mid 19th century, several other British and American universities also gave such degrees "in course".

#### Scottish MA Edit

In Scotland the first degree in Arts, Fine Art, Humanities and Social Sciences awarded by the ancient universities of Scotland is the Master of Arts. The Science and Law faculties of Scottish universities award the BSc and LLB degrees respectively and the New Universities generally award the BA. Scottish undergraduate honours courses (including the MA as well as the BA, BSc and LLB) are four years in length rather than the three years that is usual in the rest of the UK three-year undergraduate degrees are available in Scotland but lead to non-honours degrees. The Scottish MA with honours is a qualification at the level of a bachelor's degree with honours, and the Scottish MA without honours is a qualification at the level of a non-honours bachelor's degree. [14]

## University of Derby

At the University of Derby, our focus is on industry-relevant, expert teaching to help you prepare for a successful career.

We offer a range of postgraduate courses (across a wide variety of subjects many are accredited by industry bodies. You’ll work with an academic team that has years of industry experience and a passion for applied research. And you’ll be part of a diverse community of students, including many from countries around the world.

Our reputation
High-quality teaching is at the heart of what we do – and we are ranked in the Top 10 for Postgraduate Learning Experience in the Postgraduate Taught Experience Survey 2020.

“My tutors and lecturers were all fantastic, answering any questions I had, meeting with me to discuss the material and providing great feedback that enabled me to gain a Distinction.”

Charlie Bell
MSc Marketing Management

Our research
Our researchers are involved in projects as diverse as health and wellbeing, criminology, education, the arts and creative industries and much more. Their focus is on making discoveries that will create positive economic, medical, social, cultural and educational change.

Our wide-ranging research includes studies that are helping to conserve coral reefs in the face of climate change developing safe, immersive sound systems for indoor and outdoor use supporting greater inclusion for young people with special educational needs and disability and developing strategies to support a greener economy.

Facilities
We have invested £200 million over the past ten years to create modern facilities with the latest equipment to support your studies. These include our STEM Centre with the latest computing and engineering laboratories hi-tech health care facilities and a dedicated building for our Law, Criminology and Social Sciences courses.

Our supportive and experienced Careers and Employment Service provides advice and help throughout your studies and for three years after you finish your postgraduate degree. Support on offer includes: a range of workshops, lectures and seminars to help you develop your employability networking and employer events a vacancy database and application and job search advice.

There is also guidance and practical help if you want to start your own business.

Our location
Derby is at the heart of England, with good transport links to the rest of the UK. The region is home to multi-national companies including Rolls-Royce, Toyota and Bombardier. We work closely with these and other local employers to create opportunities for research, work experience and insight visits to enhance and inform your studies.

Derby is a Purple Flag city, recognised for its entertaining, safe, enjoyable and diverse night life. There’s much to discover here, including cinemas, theatre, museums and a variety of bars and restaurants. Parks and green spaces offer opportunities to unwind, while the beautiful Peak District National Park is close by, offering a range of outdoor activities.

Accommodation
We offer a range of accommodation in our award-winning halls of residence. Flamsteed Court, next to our Kedleston Road site, is specifically for our postgraduate and mature students. It provides quieter accommodation with en suite facilities. In most flats, two students share kitchen and social space.

You can also choose to live in our other halls of residence which also accommodate undergraduate students. If you prefer to rent privately, we can advise you on your options.

## What's the difference between MA and BSc Psychology?

Just wondered if you graduate with an MA in Psychology rather than a BSc are you at a disadvantage when applying for future Masters if you hoped to become a Clinical Psychologist? Apparently the MA is more social Science rather than Mathematical Science like the BSc so therefore it may not be considered as preferable as someone who has a BSc even though good unis like Edinburgh and Aberdeen offer it as an Undergraduate route.

### Not what you're looking for? Try&hellip

What? An MA is a masters degree. and a Bsc is a Bachelor of Science (ordinary 3 year degree). Now i've said that your post doesn't make much sense. unless ive just read it wrong :P

MA means a Masters of Arts.

Msci is a masters of science.

You may be thinking of the distinction between BA and BSc ?

MA = Masters degree in an Arts/Humanities subject or if you're at Cambridge or Oxford it could be any degree if you pay the extra charge for calling your degree something different.

BSc = Bachelor of Science degree i.e. the name of a normal 3 or 4 year science degree
BA = Bachelor of Arts i.e. the same thing for arts/humanities courses.

I've got a feeling all Scottish courses are MAs too (similar to Oxbridge). Maybe that's what you're thinking of?

Thanks for the replies. I understand the difference between the BSc and the BA but Unis like Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh offer an MA is Psychology, so I just wondered is it better in someway or is it better just to stick with a BSc??

(Original post by Student44)
Thanks for the replies. I understand the difference between the BSc and the BA but Unis like Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh offer an MA is Psychology, so I just wondered is it better in someway or is it better just to stick with a BSc??

A masters is always a higher qualification than a bachelor degree.

Psychology can be studdied as a art or a science (obvously an MA is a Master of Art and a BSc is a bachelor of science). I very much doubt it will affect your chances of obtaining a place on a post grad course as it is still a psychology degree at the end of the day. But as I said - a masters is a higer qualification regardless of wether it is an art or a science.

I personally studdied psychology as a science. Our uni's definition of psychology was therefore 'the study of human behaviour based on scientific empirical evidence'. I am not sure how it is defined if it is being studied as an art.

An MA is likely to be a longer course (perhaps 5 years - I think this is how glasgow do it as my husband did a 5 year MA in philosophy there). A Scottich Bsc is 3 years or 4 years with honors. A post grad masters will usually be a year or two on top of your undergrad degree.

Really? Care to elaborate and explain why, rather than just dismissing the information that others have kindly provided?

I was always under the impression that an MA was higher than a BA or a BSc, but perhaps you could tell me if, and why, I am mistaken.

I have just googled this and came across this website http://www.postgrad.com/editorial/uk_pg_programmes/ it says:

'Masters degrees are an award higher than a Bachelors degree. The difference between a Bachelors degree and a Masters degree is that while a Bachelors degree requires detailed and systematic knowledge and understanding of a general subject area, a Masters degree requires, in addition, critical skills and understanding, and a thorough knowledge of current trends and issues at the forefront of a specialist academic discipline.'

(Original post by xoxAngel_Kxox)
Really? Care to elaborate and explain why, rather than just dismissing the information that others have kindly provided?

I was always under the impression that an MA was higher than a BA or a BSc, but perhaps you could tell me if, and why, I am mistaken.

Okay. And the reason I didn't elaborate was only because I hadn't wanted to take the discussion too far off topic. Also, you've now rephrased things in a way that obliges me to answer somewhat differently from how I would have to the statement "a Masters is always higher than a Bachelors".

I was objecting to the absolutism of that "always", and thinking specifically of degrees awarded at Oxford. Until very recently that university offered bachelors degrees for most of its taught postgraduate courses in Arts and Social Sciences, they were typically called "B. Litt". An acceding to the comparatively recent globalisation of higher education and the need to attract foreign students saw them changed to Masters degrees for the designation. Some departments, though, resisted this, considering that their courses had a brand name that would carry them through, the BPhil and BCL are flagship courses and the BMus is still awarded. Since Oxford grads can supplicate their BAs for MAs, you'll see people with the qualifications "MA, BPhil", where the BPhil is the higher qualification.

Closer to the question asked, it's often the case in Scotland that arts degrees will be awarded 'MA (hons)' and Science degrees 'BSc (hons)' where these are studied over the same duration at the same university (in both cases these would be 4 year degrees). The claim that the one is worth more than the other would hold water, then, only if it were maintained that Arts degrees are somehow intrinsically more valuable than degrees in the Sciences. Where a university is offering a degree which can have either qualification, this likely means there is opprotunity to pursue an arts or sciences pathway with regard to module choices. This is seen, for example, in Geography, where a concentration in Physical or Human Geography options might lead to the awarding of a different degree title.

## Memorization vs. Analysis

College students spend a great deal of time memorizing facts, definitions, lists, and formulas. In graduate school, your emphasis will change from simply recalling information to using it. Instead, you'll be asked to apply what you know and analyze problems. You'll take fewer exams in graduate school and they will emphasize your ability to synthesize what you read and learn in class and critically analyze it in light of your own experience and perspective. Writing and research are the major tools of learning in graduate school. It's no longer as important to remember a specific fact as it is to know how to find it.

## What is a PGCE?

What is a PGCE? Well, let’s start with the basics – what does PGCE stand for? It’s a Postgraduate Certificate in Education. Though this may make it sounds like a normal postgraduate certificate, it’s really very different.

In order to do a PGCE, you’ll need a degree. The subject that your degree is in should ideally be the one you intend to teach, as a PGCE won’t teach you about your subject in detail, but rather, how to teach. If it’s merely linked, you may need to gain more experience by following something like a subject knowledge enhancement course. Therefore, you need to be confident in your knowledge of your subject before applying for such a course. In addition, you’ll need at least a C in English and Mathematics at GCSE, and for ages 7-14 you’ll need a C in Science too.

PGCEs are offered by a variety of places – universities, Teach First, or through a school direct training program. We’ll mainly focus on the university method, as this is the most common way to get such a qualification. So, what is it like to study a PGCE?

## What does a conversion course involve?

Since you've already completed an undergraduate degree you will be familiar with the system of lectures, tutorials, coursework and exams that are all part of a conversion course as well. You will also find periods of work or clinical placements are involved along with your course. The combination of the concentrated time period and work placements make conversion courses an intense period of work and study that will leave you with very little spare time.

## Differences between formative and summative assessments

### Difference 1

The first big difference is when the assessment takes place in a student’s learning process.

As the definition already gave away, formative assessment is an ongoing activity. The evaluation takes place during the learning process. Not just one time, but several times.

A summative evaluation takes place at a complete other time. Not during the process, but after it. The evaluation takes place after a course or unit’s completion.

### Difference 2

There’s also a big difference between the assessement strategies in getting the right information of the student’s learning.

With formative assessments you try to figure out whether a student’s doing well or needs help by monitoring the learning process.

When you use summative assessments, you assign grades. The grades tell you whether the student achieved the learning goal or not.

### Difference 3

The purposes of both assessments lie miles apart. For formative assessment, the purpose is to improve student’s learning. In order to do this you need to be able to give meaningful feedback. Check out this post about feedback.

For summative assessment, the purpose is to evaluate student’s achievements.

So do you want your students to be the best at something, or do you want your students to transcend themselves each time over and over again?

### Difference 4

Remember when I said that with formative assessment the evaluation takes place several times during the learning process en with summative assessment at the end of a chapter or course? This explains also the size of the evaluation packages.

Formative assessment includes little content areas. For example: 3 formative evaluations of 1 chapter.

Summative assessment includes complete chapters or content areas. For example: just 1 evaluation at the end of a chapter. The lesson material package is much larger now.

### Difference 5

The last difference you may already have guessed. Formative assessment considers evaluation as a process. This way, the teacher can see a student grow and steer the student in an upwards direction.

With summative assessment it’s harder for you to steer the student in the right direction. The evaluation is already done. That’s why summative assessments or evaluations are considered to be more of a “product”.