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I've observed multiple occasions where females are better at multitasking than males. It's not rare to see a lady driving a car, doing her make up and talking on the phone at the same time. Once I worked at a call center, and women were able to talk on the phone with a client and successfully perform a second task without much disruption. From my experience men have struggled with the same or similar combination of tasks.
Is there any research that backs up my anecdotal evidence?
There is no consistent evidence for the fact that women are better than men at multitasking. We do know that multitasking is detrimental for performance, whether it is forced or scheduled. Women do appear to be better at planning when to multitask and, in fact, do it less often than men. Counter-intuitively, women may give the impression to be better at multitasking because they do it less often.
The notion that women are better multitaskers is deeply grained in our society. There is even an evolutionary explanation as of why that may be the case. As paraphrased by Ren, Zhou and Fu (2009):
[… ] females who stayed at home could not afford focusing solely on food preparation because the offspring cannot be left on their own. In other words, the structure of primitive human society exerted a strong selection pressure against females who were incapable of juggling several chores.
Women are better
In controlled experiments, people even found some evidence (Stoet et al, 2013;Ren et al, 2009) that supports that women are better multitaskers. In the study of Stoet et al, stimuli were shown that had two dimensions (shape and filling) each of which had two features (which determined which button to press). Only when the stimulus was presented, it became apparent on which dimension the participant had to focus. The results showed that 120 women performed significantly better on the task, compared to 120 men. As you can see from the Figure, the effect is not that large though. With enough participants, every minor effect will become significant at one point.
In the study of Ren, the participants were to perform a go-nogo task, followed by a flanker task (target identification). In a simple condition (always go, followed by a flanker task), men and women were, in a way, monotasking the flanker task. In the hierarchical condition participants had to make a decision on both go-nogo, which determined whether the flanker task had to be performed. There are two important notions that we must consider here. First of all, women improved on the hierarchical conditions! This is very surprising given the general consensus is that multitasking is detrimental for performance. Secondary task performance, for instance, is even being used as a measure for mental workload (Wickens, 1983; Kaber, 1999).
This surprising observation may be explained by the notion of the authors themselves (which is the second notion): the task at hand is not necessarily multitasking in the sense of rapid switching between (often unrelated) tasks. Instead, I think, the task in this study must be seen as sequential monotasking, in which the first task determines how the second one must be performed.
Women are not better
Another study investigated multitasking abilities between men and women using sudoku's and cross-word puzzles (Buser and Peter, 2011). The tasks were either performed (1) sequentially, (2) forced multitasking or (3) freely scheduled. Results showed that during forced multitasking and freely scheduled multitasking, performance dropped significantly compared to sequential task execution. No gender differences were found here.
Then why do we think women are better multitaskers?
Stoet et al, performed two experiments. In the second experiment, three more ecological valid task were to be performed concurrently, for which the participants had eight minutes in total. The order in which they had to be performed was up to the participants. Here, less obvious differences were found. In two of the task there was no significant difference in performance. One task, the key-finding task, did show that women were significantly better. However, we must again ask, is this because of their multitasking ability?
Because the participants could decide when and how to perform the task (sequential monotasking or multitasking-wise), they were in charge of the planning. It has been shown that people are generally bad at this and performance always is affected (Katidioti, 2014; see also Provable ROI for call center rest periods?; Buser and Peter). What Buser and Peter found, however, is that women are less inclined to multitask compared to men when given the choice. If this is indeed the case, this may explain the fact that women performed better at the key searching task.
Women are significantly better at multitasking than men
Women are better than men at carrying out multiple tasks according to new research from a team of psychologists including researchers from the University of Hertfordshire.
Women can juggle different tasks at the same time, while men find it difficult to do more than one thing at a time are commonly-held beliefs. Despite these notions being widely believed, very little research has even examined such notions. However, new research from the Universities of Hertfordshire, Glasgow and Leeds just published in BMC Psychology provides support for the proposal that women are better at multitasking.
Keith Laws, Professor of Cognitive Neuropsychology at the University of Hertfordshire, said: “We’ve all heard stories about men not being able to multitask and only being able to focus on one thing at a time. And also stories about women who are able to manage several activities at the same time.
“Through a set of two experiments we measured people’s ability to carry out multiple tasks either at the same time or in very quick succession. And the results showed that women had a distinct advantage in both types of multitasking.”
In the first experiment, 120 men and 120 women participated in a computer-based challenge designed to measure their task-switching abilities. The participants performed two tasks separately before being asked to perform them both in the same test.
Although men and women performed the separate tasks with the same speed and accuracy, men were slower than women on the mixed tasks. Women’s responses were around sixty-one per cent slower, whereas men’s responses were seventy-seven per cent slower – suggesting that women have an advantage over men in this type of multitasking.
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In the second experiment, a different group of forty-seven men and forty-seven women were tested to measure their response to multitasking in more common real-life tasks.
In a pre-set time limit, they were asked to sketch out how they would attempt a search for a set of lost keys in a field to find restaurant symbols on a map of the city of Philadelphia (to test their everyday attention levels) and solve simple arithmetical questions. The tasks were chosen to test their planning and strategic abilities, their attention control and manipulation of simple information under time pressure.
It was left for participants to decide how to split the time between each task and they were also told to expect a phone call at some point during the test – which they could choose to answer or not. If they answered the phone, they were asked a series of additional general knowledge questions to add to the burden.
In this series of tests, women scored significantly higher on the key search task – suggesting that they are better at tasks which require high-level cognitive control, particularly planning, monitoring and inhibition.
Overall the results of both experiments support the notion that women are better at multitasking than men. However, further research is required to provide explanations as to precisely why women appear to be better multitaskers.
The team’s paper, ‘Are women better than men at multi-tasking?’, is published today in the Open Access journal BMC Psychology (BMC Psychology 2013, 1:18 doi:10.1186/2050-7283-1-18). The research was supported by a grant from the British Academy.
Women Are Better Multitaskers Than Men, Study Finds
Anecdotal evidence has long supported the hypothesis that the fair sex is also the "do-a-bunch-of-things-at-the-same-time" sex. And now a study out of the U.K. helps to support the idea women are better at multitasking than men.
In a set of two experiments, psychologists at the University of Hertfordshire, the University of Glasgow and the University of Leeds pitted men against women to see if they could lend some scientific credibility to that commonly held belief that women are better than men at multitasking.
the first experiment, 120 men and 120 women played a computer game in which they were asked to carry out two tasks independently of one another. Both sexes performed these individual tasks with the same speed and accuracy. But when participants were asked to perform the two tasks at the same time, women were quicker their responses were only slowed by about 61 percent compared with the first task, while men's were slowed by about 77 percent.
According to researchers, the results of this experiment suggest women are more adept than men when it comes to switching quickly between different tasks. Women also fared better in the second experiment, in which both sexes were put to the test performing a set of common, real-life tasks — like sketching out a plan for finding a lost set of keys, locating different restaurants on a city map and solving simple arithmetic problems. Participants (47 men and 47 women) were given a certain amount of time to perform these various tasks simultaneously. To complicate matters even further, participants also had to contend with a ringing telephone that, if answered, prompted them for answers to general knowledge questions.
Women were found to be better at some types of "real world" multitasking, as well.
"Men and women did not differ significantly at solving simple arithmetic problems, searching for restaurants on a map, or answering general knowledge questions on the phone, but women were significantly better at devising strategies for locating a lost key," the researchers write online in the journal BMC Psychology.
Perhaps most significantly, women scored much higher than men on the key search task, leading researchers to suspect women might possess a higher level of cognitive control than men — particularly when it comes to planning, monitoring and inhibiting behavior.
The researchers caution against making generalizations based on this study because there is very little experimental evidence of multitasking differences between men and women. "Instead, we hope that other researchers will aim to replicate and elaborate on our findings," they write.
Even so, humans overall may not be natural-born multitaskers, as research has suggested dividing attention across several tasks can tax the brain. Dividing attention across multiple activities is taxing on the brain, and can often come at the expense of real productivity, said Arthur Markman, a professor in the department of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin.
"There's a small number of people who are decent multitaskers — this concept of a 'supertasker' — but at best, it's maybe 10 percent of the population, so chances are, you're not one of them," Markman told LiveScience in June. "The research out there will tell you that there are a couple of people who are good at it, but it's probably not you."
Women no better at multitasking than men, study finds
New research has revealed that gender makes no difference in a person’s ability to multitask.
Share on Pinterest Women are no better at multitasking than men, new research shows.
Whether it is the result of anecdotal evidence or gender stereotyping, the belief that women are better at multitasking than men is very prevalent.
In fact, in a 2015 survey, 80% of the respondents were convinced that women had better multitasking abilities than men.
But what does the science say?
New research busts this myth. Patricia Hirsch, from the Institute of Psychology at Aachen University in Germany, and her colleagues set out to “put this stereotype to the test.”
The researchers asked 96 participants (48 men and 48 women) to take part in two types of test: a task switching one and a dual tasking one.
Hirsch and colleagues have published their findings in the journal PLOS One .
The term multitasking describes the performance of a set of different tasks in a limited time period.
Engaging in multitasking requires a greater cognitive demand, as it involves a “temporal overlap of the cognitive processes involved in performing these tasks.”
In other words, doing several things at the same time requires more cognitive energy than doing them one at a time.
In reality, rather than doing several things at once, the human brain switches rapidly between tasks during multitasking, which puts a strain on attention and cognitive resources.
To test gender differences in multitasking abilities, Hirsch and colleagues asked the participants to engage in two sets of activities.
In the first set of experiments, called “concurrent multitasking” or “dual tasking,” the researchers asked the participants to pay attention to two tasks at the same time.
In the second set of experiments, called “sequential multitasking” or “task switching,” the participants had to switch attention between tasks.
For both testing paradigms, the participants had to “categorize letters as consonant or vowel and digits as odd or even” using their index and middle fingers.
The team presented the stimuli to the left and right of a fixation point in the middle of a screen. These corresponded spatially to the keys that the participants had to press in order to categorize the letters and numbers.
“Stimuli presented to the left of the fixation cross were categorized with the Y and X keys of a QWERTZ keyboard and stimuli appearing to the right of the fixation cross with the N and M keys.”
In the concurrent multitasking setup, the researchers presented the stimuli at the same time, while in the sequential multitasking setup, they presented them alternately.
During the experiments, the researchers measured the participants’ reaction time and task accuracy.
The results of the experiments revealed that multitasking took its toll on reaction time and accuracy in men and women equally. The multitasking cost on these two measures was significant and comparable between men and women.
Additionally, across three underlying cognitive processes — working memory updating, task engagement and disengagement, and inhibition — men and women performed equally well, or equally bad, when they tried to multitask.
“ The present findings strongly suggest that there are no substantial gender differences in multitasking performance across task switching and dual task paradigms.”
Why Women's Brains Are Better Than Men's At Multitasking: Brain Power Linked To Age And Gender
We live in a 24/7 connected culture that enables us to commute to work, read a book, and pay the bills on our smartphones, all at the same time. This ability to manage multiple things, set priorities, and adapt to changing conditions may come easier to women than men. A recent study in Human Physiology found men require more brainpower than women when multitasking.
"Our findings suggest that women might find it easier than men to switch attention and their brains do not need to mobilize extra resources in doing so, as opposed to male brains," said Svetlana Kuptsova, author of the study, and part of the National Research University Higher School of Economics Neurolinguistic Laboratory, in a statement.
Previous research has shown women find it easier than men to multitask and switch between tasks. Although both sexes struggle to cope with juggling priorities, men suffer more on average. Women were better apt to jump between incoming emails, phone calls, and assignments, while running in and out of meetings. However, both women and men slowed down and made more mistakes as they switched tasks and tried to work faster.
The researchers suggest women spend more time thinking at the beginning, while men are more impulsive, and jump in too quickly. This implies women are more equipped to stop and process what’s going on in front of them in a stressful and complex situation. However, Kuptsova and her colleagues note there is no explanation as to what areas of the male and female brains respond differently, and why this has been so unclear.
A total of 140 healthy volunteers, including 69 men and 71 women between 20 and 65 were involved in the series of experiments. Kuptsova and her colleagues asked participants to perform a test that required switching attention between sorting objects according to shape (round or square) and number (one or two), in a pseudo-random order using functional MRI. In addition, neuropsychological tests were conducted, including the D-KEFS Trail Making Test, which measures the participants’ ability to switch attention, and the Wechsler Memory Scale test to measure their audial and visual memory.
Despite gender and age, multitasking always involves activating certain brain regions, specifically activating the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, which are involved in a variety of complex behaviors, including planning, and which have a heavy influence on personality development. Other areas include the supplementary motor areas, which contribute to movement control the inferior parietal lobes, concerned with language, mathematical operations, and body image, particularly the supramarginal gyrus and the angular gyrus and the inferior occipital gyrus, which are involved in the visual processing center.
Women require less brain power than men to multitask. Photo courtesy of Pexels, Public Domain
"We know that stronger activation and involvement of supplementary areas of the brain are normally observed in subjects faced with complex tasks,” said Kuptsova.
Gender differences were found when it came to brain activation during task switching in participants younger than 45 to 50, while those aged 50 and older showed no gender differences in brain activation or speed task switching. The researchers note older men and women, starting at the age of 45 in women and 55 in men, experienced increased activation of key areas in the brain, and were able to mobilize additional brain resources. Although the reaction time is different, it is barely noticeable in everyday life.
However, Kuptsova notes, “"it might make a difference in really stressful circumstances or in critical situations which require frequent switching of attention."
So why does this gender difference exist?
Currently, American psychologist Jerre Levy proposes men tend to have better spatial skills and women are better at more verbal tasks because of evolution and social factors. Previously, men spent their time hunting, requiring spatial abilities, and women were caretakers for their children, which warrants good communication skills. These survival traits have been passed down from generation to generation, which can explain why these gender differences in multitasking have come to exist.
Perhaps men and women shouldn’t get so caught up in who’s the better multitasker. In reality, there’s only a small number of people who are decent multitaskers, known as “supertaskers,” which only includes 2 percent of the population.
Chances are you are not one of them. Don’t stress it.
Source: Kuptsova SV, Ivanova MV, Petrushevskiy MV et al. Sex- and age-related characteristics of brain functioning during task switching (fMRI study). Human Physiology. 2016.
Gender differences in multitasking experience and performance
There is a widespread stereotype that women are better at multitasking. Previous studies examining gender difference in multitasking used either a concurrent or sequential multitasking paradigm and offered mixed results. This study examined a possibility that men were better at concurrent multitasking while women were better at task switching. In addition, men and women were also compared in terms of multitasking experience, measured by a computer monitoring software, a self-reported Media Use Questionnaire, a laboratory task-switching paradigm, and a self-reported Multitasking Prevalence Inventory. Results showed a smaller concurrent multitasking (dual-task) cost for men than women and no gender difference in sequential multitasking (task-switching) cost. Men had more experience in multitasking involving video games while women were more experienced in multitasking involving music, instant messaging, and web surfing. The gender difference in dual-task performance, however, was not mediated by the gender differences in multitasking experience but completely explained by difference in the processing speed. The findings suggest that men have an advantage in concurrent multitasking, which may be a result of the individual differences in cognitive abilities.
Keywords: Gender difference dual-task performance experience multitasking task switching.
First concrete evidence that women are better multitaskers than men
Professor Keith Laws at the University's School of Psychology looked at multitasking in 50 male and 50 female undergraduates and found that although the sexes performed equally when they multitasked on simple maths and map reading tasks, women far excelled men when it came to planning how to search for a lost key, with 70 per cent of women performing better than their average male counterparts.
"The search for the lost key task, which involved giving the men and women a blank sheet of paper representing a field and asking them to draw how they would search for the key, revealed that women planned more strategically than men," said Professor Laws. "I was surprised by this result given the arguments that men have better spatial skills than women.
Professor Laws was also surprised that despite the universal notion that women are better than men at multitasking, their review of the literature unearthed no previous scientific evidence to support this claim.
The participants in Professor Laws study, who were undergraduates at the University, had eight minutes to do several tasks at the same time, such as simple maths problems, map reading, answering a telephone caller asking general knowledge questions and showing the strategy they would use to search for an imaginary lost key in a field.
Materials provided by University of Hertfordshire. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
No one is good at multitasking
Multitasking is the act of performing several independent tasks within a short time. It requires rapidly and frequently switching attention from one task to another, increasing the cognitive demand, compared to completing single tasks in sequence.
This study builds on an existing body of research showing human brains cannot manage multiple activities at once. Particularly when two tasks are similar, they compete to use the same part of the brain, which makes multitasking very difficult.
But human brains are good at switching between activities quickly, which makes people feel like they're multitasking. The brain, however, is working on one project at a time.
In this new study, German researchers compared the abilities of 48 men and 48 women in how well they identified letters and numbers. In some experiments, participants were required to pay attention to two tasks at once (called concurrent multitasking), while in others they needed to switch attention between tasks (called sequential multitasking).
The researchers measured reaction time and accuracy for the multitasking experiments against a control condition (performing one task only).
They found multitasking substantially affected the speed and accuracy of completing the tasks for both men and women. There was no difference between the groups.
Research: Women and Men Are Equally Bad at Multitasking
According to popular stereotypes, women are better multitaskers. While there have been some scientific studies that have found a female advantage in multitasking, other studies have found either no sex differences or a male advantage. A team of researchers set out to test this once again, using a computer simulation that mimicked an everyday situation—a method that allowed them to create a real-world environment while controlling for a number of variables. They found no differences between male and female participants.
According to popular stereotypes, women are better multitaskers. In fact, a quick Google search leads to many press articles claiming a female advantage. For example, women came out as better multitaskers when researchers used fMRI scans to measure brain activity, computer tests to measure response times, and an exercise in which people walking on a treadmill had to simultaneously complete a cognitive task.
From analyzing decades of studies of men and women in other cognitive skills, we know that men’s and women’s performance is usually quite similar. Yet there are a few tasks in which men and women consistently outperform each other — on average: For example, it is well-established that men typically fare better when imagining what complex 3-dimensional figures would look like if they were rotated. In turn, women reliably outperform men in certain verbal abilities such as remembering a list of words or other verbal content.
While women’s supposed superiority at multitasking has garnered headlines, the scientific findings regarding sex differences in multitasking abilities are rather inconsistent: some studies found no sex differences while others reported either a male or female advantage.
One reason for these inconsistent findings may be that, to date, the vast majority of studies have examined gender differences using artificial laboratory tasks that do not match with the complex and challenging multitasking activities of everyday life. Another possible culprit is that different researchers define multitasking differently.
To address these concerns, we developed a computerized task — The Meeting Preparation Task (CMPT) — that was designed to resemble everyday life activities and, at the same time, that was grounded in the most comprehensive theoretical model of multitasking activities. That would be the model of University College London professor Paul Burgess. He defines two types of multitasking — concurrent multitasking, in which you do two or more activities at the same time (talking on the phone while driving) and serial multitasking, in which you switch rapidly between tasks (preparing your next meeting and answering an email, being interrupted by a colleague, checking Twitter). It’s this latter type of multitasking that most of us do most often, and this type of multitasking we wanted to test.
In the CMPT, participants find themselves in a 3-dimensional space, consisting of three rooms: a kitchen, a storage room, and a main room with tables and a projection screen. They are required to prepare a room for a meeting, that is, they have to place objects such as the chairs, pencils, and drinks in the right location, while at the same time dealing with distractors such as a missing chair and a phone call, and to remember actions to be carried out in the future (e.g., give an object to an avatar, put the coffee on the meeting table at a certain time). This computerized simulation was originally created to allow for placing all the participants in the exact same conditions which permits to easily compare their performance and to avoid variables that may affect it (e.g., amount of noise). Such tasks also allow for measuring many variables at the same time. Finally, the task was designed to place participants in an unfamiliar situation, that is, in a situation where most people do not have any previous experience that would help them in carrying out the task.
Our idea with the present study was simple yet rare in the scientific literature: to use a validated task to assess whether there are gender differences in multitasking abilities in an everyday scenario in the general population. In order to do so, we recruited 66 females and 82 males aged between 18 and 60 years old and we asked them to carry out the CMPT. Thereafter, we compared the performance of both groups on several variables from the CMPT: overall accuracy of task completion (e.g., have participants placed the required objects on the table?), total time taken to complete the task, total distance traveled in the virtual environment, whether participants forgot to carry out tasks, and whether they managed the interrupting events (such as the phone call) in an optimal manner. We found no differences between men and women in terms of serial multitasking abilities.
We cannot exclude the possibility that there are no sex differences in serial multitasking abilities, but if they do exist, such differences are likely to be very small. There is a need for other studies that replicate these findings, or that investigate concurrent multitasking. But we think it is fair to conclude that the evidence for the stereotype that women are better multitaskers is, so far, fairly weak.
Are women really better multitaskers than men?
Newly-published research out of the UK concludes that women are better at certain forms of multitasking than men. The results agree with folk-knowledge , and even spurred one researcher to conclude that "if women couldn't multitask, we wouldn't be here." But how big of a difference is there really?
Top photo by CarbonNYC via flickr
The study, which appears in the latest issue of the journal BMC Psychology , concludes that men performed significantly slower than women on a computerized test that requires users to juggle tasks involving counting and shape-recognition ( try it out for yourself here ). A followup test involving more real-world scenarios (wherein test subjects were allotted eight minutes to locate restaurants on a map, perform simple maths equations, answer a phone call, and plan how to go about sweeping a field for a set of lost keys) also put women at an advantage, albeit only during the key-search portion.
Completing all these assignments in eight minutes was impossible - so it forced men and women to prioritise, organise their time, and keep calm under pressure.
In the key search task in particular, women displayed a clear performance advantage over men, says co-author Prof Keith Laws, of the University of Hertfordshire.
"You can see from the drawings - women used methodical search patterns, like going round the field in concentric circles. That's a highly productive strategy for finding a lost object.
"Whereas some men didn't even search the whole field in any particular manner, which is just bizarre."
Laws says his team's findings suggest that women are more organized under pressure where men have a tendency to act impulsively, he says, women spend more time planning ahead. "It suggests that - in a stressed and complex situation - women are more able to stop and think about what's going on in front of them."
The observation gels strongly with the so-called "hunter-gatherer" hypothesis for male and female multi-tasking skills. Writes University of Glasgow researcher Gijsbert Stoet, first author on the paper:
The hunter-gatherer hypothesis proposes that men and women have cognitively adapted to a division of labor between the sexes (i.e., men are optimized for hunting, and women are optimized for gathering). [Previous researchers have] speculated that women’s gathering needed to be combined with looking after children, which possibly requires more multi-tasking than doing a task without having to look after your offspring
"Put simply," Stoet told the BBC, "if women couldn't multitask, we wouldn't be here."
Evolutionary arguments notwithstanding, what the rest of the BBC's coverage (which you can read here ) neglects to mention is that while the study does conclude that women outperform men in these particular "multi-tasking paradigms," the researchers also note that "a near lack of empirical studies on gender differences in multitasking should caution against making strong generalisations," which generalizations, let's be honest, results like this tend to precipitate.
It's also important to remember that multi-tasking, as the researchers acknowledge, is "a relatively broad concept in psychology." As with other broad concepts , this makes it difficult to boil multitasking-abilities down to binary, battle-of-the-sexes type comparisons. At least one other study , led by Stockholm University's Timo Mäntylä , has found that women perform worse than men on multitasking that involves spatial reasoning (the study also linked the performance gap to where women were in their menstrual cycles).
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But then are men "better" multitaskers than women? Sure. Sometimes. Maybe. It might also be easier to say who is better at what if humans were any good at multitasking to begin with. But we're not. We're awful at it. In fact, the better most people think they are at multitasking, the worse they actually are findings published earlier this year by University of Utah psychologists David Strayer and David Sanbonmatsu found that people who identify as strong multitaskers actually tend to be impulsive, sensation-seeking and overconfident in their ability to juggle multiple tasks simultaneously. The people who identify as multitasking the most are often the least capable of doing so effectively. (Strayer and Sonbonmatsu also found that seventy percent of their participants rated themselves as above-average at multitasking, and while they make no mention of each gender's self-opinion, Stoet and his colleagues make the general observation that men tend to think themselves better multitaskers than they actually are, whereas women tend to do the opposite.)
Think you can multitask? Congratulations, you're probably living a lie.
Hey you. Yeah, you. The one reading this while you take a working lunch to bang out some emails and
As Stoet and his colleagues note, the most important consideration of all is that the study of multitasking is an emerging field that is represented by a small body of scientific observation and analysis. Add to this the fact that there are many ways to assess multi-tasking performance, and the discordant results of Strayer, Stoet and Mäntylä seem perhaps less at conflict with one another, and more like different sides of a broad, multi-faceted psychological concept. Or, as Stoet and colleagues put it, "the near lack of empirical studies on gender differences in multitasking should caution against making strong generalisations. Instead, we hope that other researchers will aim to replicate and elaborate on our findings."