We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
With a blend of contributing factors such as past experiences and personality, anorexia is more complicated than you might think.
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder involving weight loss, food restriction, and sometimes compulsive exercise.
Body image distress and fear of weight gain often drive these behaviors, but the condition goes deeper than that.
Biological and environmental factors can:
- make you more likely to develop anorexia
- trigger behaviors related to anorexia
- get in the way of healing and recovery
In addition, the following factors can contribute to anorexia:
- brain chemistry
- family behaviors
- other mental health conditions
- past trauma
- social attitudes about weight
Learning about the risk factors and causes of anorexia can help people at many stages of recovery gain a better understanding of their condition. It can often be a validating process.
Whether you’re still figuring out if you have an eating disorder or you’re far along on your path to recovery, learning about the roots of anorexia could be a step toward healing.
Environmental and social factors play a large role in who develops anorexia.
Eating disorders are often connected to having a history of trauma, especially childhood sexual trauma.
- physical abuse
- emotional abuse
- teasing and bullying
- parental divorce
- loss of a family member
Some other environmental risk factors of anorexia are:
- bullying, especially about weight
- childhood adversity or trauma
- isolation and loneliness
- being in environments with high pressure to have a smaller body (like modeling and ballet)
- history of family or generational trauma
- living in a culture that promotes small bodies as ideal
The most common traumatic events were connected to sexual trauma.
Sometimes anorexia can be triggered when a person who has other anorexia risk factors spends a lot of time in situations where the pressure to have a small body is very strong.
Certain personality traits are more common in people with anorexia.
Anorexia has been linked to:
- body dissatisfaction and frequent thoughts about an “ideal” appearance
- anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
- history of dieting or other weight-control methods
- autistic features
- rigid ideas, beliefs, or plans
Some research estimates that anywhere from 8 to 37% of people with an eating disorder could be autistic.
One study found the chances of autism were more than 15 times greater in people with anorexia than in those without.
Researchers also looked at the
People with cognitive inflexibility may have a harder time adapting to unexpected conditions. They might stay more focused or get stuck on one issue longer.
The study found that eating disorder symptoms and social anxiety were both tied to cognitive inflexibility. And when researchers took social anxiety out of the picture, the link between eating disorder symptoms and cognitive inflexibility stayed strong.
Perfectionism could also play a major role in anorexia, both before and after recovery. Researchers
For decades, people believed social, cultural, and family behaviors were the main cause of anorexia. But anorexia can run in families, and twin studies suggest genetics play an important role.
Genetic risk factors of anorexia include:
- having a family member with an eating disorder
- having a family member with a mental health condition
- living with type 1 diabetes
Your chance of developing anorexia is much higher if a close family member has it. If you have a parent, sibling, or child with anorexia, your risk of developing it could be
Living with type 1 diabetes is also a key risk factor for anorexia.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) classifies restricting insulin as a purging behavior. If someone is restricting both food and insulin, they could meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa with purging behaviors.
Eating disorders can impact anyone of any age, gender, socioeconomic status, or race. But some people may have more risk factors that increase their chances of having anorexia.
Women are about 2 to 3 times more likely to develop anorexia than men. But rates of anorexia in men may be underreported due to stigma.
Teens and young women in their early 20s seem to have a higher risk of anorexia than other age groups.
Another risk factor is having a mental health issue, such as:
- a mood disorder
Many people with anorexia are also on the autism spectrum.
Social and cultural pressures to have a small body can also be risk factors for eating disorders. For example, anorexia is more common in Western culture and in people recently exposed to Western culture.
Low self-esteem is another known risk factor for anorexia.
A healthcare professional can diagnose anorexia. To get a diagnosis, you might talk to:
- a pediatrician
- a family practitioner
- a psychiatrist
This might involve a physical exam and a mental health evaluation. If you want to learn more about anorexia symptoms first, here’s one good place to start.
The DSM-5 has these guidelines for diagnosing anorexia nervosa:
- weight loss that impacts your health and well-being
- strong fear of gaining weight
- body image distortion
- view of body weight and shape that affects your self-esteem
- lack of recognition that the weight loss is taking a toll on your health
Anorexia can impact people of any body size.
People with atypical anorexia might be considered average or overweight according to the BMI. But the weight loss they’ve experienced can cause the same health impacts as it would in someone with a smaller body who has anorexia.
So what causes anorexia? It’s caused by a complex interaction of your environment and genetics. Social situations and personality could play especially big roles in whether someone has anorexia.
If you think you have anorexia, you’re not alone. Treatment centers, counseling, family therapy, and other methods can help you build a good relationship with food and your body.
What Are the Causes of Anorexia Nervosa? - Psychology
While nearly two out of three U.S. adults struggle with issues related to being overweight, a smaller but significant portion of the population has eating disorders that typically result in being normal weight or underweight. Often, individuals are fearful of gaining weight. Individuals who suffer from bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa face many adverse health consequences (Mayo Clinic, 2012a, 2012b).
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by the maintenance of a bodyweight well below average through starvation and/or excessive exercise. Individuals suffering from anorexia nervosa often have a distorted body image, referenced in literature as a type of body dysmorphia, meaning that they view themselves as overweight even though they are not.
An Integrative Bio-Psycho-Social Theory of Anorexia Nervosa
The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here. We suggest eight key factors central to understanding the maintenance and treatment resistance of anorexia nervosa: genetic or experiential predisposing factors dysfunctional feelings processing and regulation systems excessive vulnerable feelings 'feared self' beliefs starvation as a maladaptive physiological feelings regulation mechanism maladaptive psychological coping modes maladaptive social behaviour and unmet physical and psychological core needs. Each of these factors serves to maintain the disorder. The concept of universal physical and psychological core needs can provide an underpinning integrative framework for working with this distinctly physical and psychological disorder. This framework could be used within any treatment model. We suggest that treatments which help address the profound lack of trust, emotional security and self-acceptance in this patient group will in turn address unmet needs and improve well-being. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Key practitioner message: The concept of unmet physical and psychological needs can be used as an underlying integrative framework for understanding and working with this patient group, alongside any treatment model. A functional understanding of the neuro-biological, physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in anorexia nervosa can help patients reduce self-criticism and shame. Fears about being or becoming fat, greedy, needy, selfish and unacceptable ('Feared Self') drive over-compensatory self-depriving behaviour ('Anorexic Self'). Psychological treatment for anorexia nervosa should emphasize a focus on feelings and fostering experiences of acceptance and trust. Treatment for patients with anorexia nervosa needs to be longer than current clinical practice.
Keywords: Anorexia Nervosa Bio-Psycho-Social Core Needs Emotions Theory Trust.
Full resource pack (PDF)
Information handout only (PDF)
Editable version (PPT)
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by:
- A restriction of energy intake relative to requirements leading to significantly low body weight
- Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, or persistent behaviour that interferes with weight gain
- Disturbances in the way body shape and weight is experienced, and/or undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation
(American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
Fairburn, Cooper & Shafran (2003) argue that over-evaluation of eating, shape and weight, and their control is central to the maintenance of anorexia nervosa. They propose that this cognitive process drives dieting and weight control behaviour which results in ‘starvation syndrome’ and further cognitive changes. Their model of anorexia nervosa presented here describes the maintenance of both a ‘restricting type’ and a ‘binge-eating / purging type’. In their extended transdiagnostic theory of eating disorders (of which the present maintaining processes form a part) the authors identify a number of additional maintenance mechanisms which operate in somecases of anorexia nervosa. These include:
- Clinical perfectionism
- Core low self-esteem (persistent and pervasive negative self-beliefs that are viewed as part of the individual’s self-identity)
- Mood intolerance (difficulty coping with strong mood states)
- Interpersonal difficulties
One interesting characteristic of the full transdiagnostic model is that “The patient’s specific eating disorder diagnosis is not of relevance to the treatment. Rather, its content is dictated by the particular psychological features present and the processes that appear to be maintaining them”.
This is a Psychology Tools information handout. Suggested uses include:
- Client handout – use as a psychoeducation resource
- Discussion point – use to provoke a discussion and explore client beliefs
- Therapist learning tool – improve your familiarity with a psychological construct
- Teaching resource – use as a learning tool during training
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
- Fairburn, C. G., Cooper, Z., Shafran, R. (2003). Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders: a “transdiagnostic” theory and treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 509-528.
- Smink, F. R., Van Hoeken, D., & Hoek, H. W. (2012). Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. Current Psychiatry Reports, 14(4), 406-414.
> Resources > Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Anorexia Nervosa (Fairburn, Cooper, Shafran, 2003)
Genetic & Psychological Factors that Cause Anorexia Nervosa
Some people may develop anorexia nervosa because of genetics or psychologically.
Evidence from twin studies has shown there may be a large genetic component to developing anorexia nervosa. Studies have shown that there may be a 50-80% heritability factor contributing to anorexia nervosa. Specific genes have been discovered that may contribute to the development of anorexia nervosa.
Individuals with anorexia nervosa have an increased likelihood of developing another mental health disorder or vice versa. Co-occurring disorders in the mental health community are known as two mental health disorders that occur at the same time and one or the other could have been the cause. Therefore, anxiety could lead to anorexia nervosa or anorexia nervosa could lead to anxiety. Known co-occurring psychological disorders associated with anorexia nervosa are anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and self-harm behavior.
The Psychology of Anorexia: Understanding The Mindset
Why would anyone deliberately starve themselves? This is something many people wonder when they think about anorexia. It's a question that people struggle with when watching their loved ones wasting away.
Anorexia is an odd condition because people suffering from it often don't want to get well. They don't want to be sick, of course they don't want to feel lousy, damage their bodies, or die—but many struggle with a fear of getting better.
There are a host of different factors that may contribute to anorexia, from genetic to brain chemistry to social pressures. When it comes to psychology, though, many people with anorexia struggle to find the motivation to get well, because the motivation to keep things as they are seems stronger.
Life is unpredictable, and uncertainty can cause tremendous stress. Feeling helpless can be debilitating. Anorexia gives some people a feeling of control. This kind of power is addictive. The more researchers study people with the disorder, the more they are concluding that it's not about appearances as much as it is about control.
One way to get relief from your fears and problems is to not think about them. By focusing intently on their eating habits and weight, they don’t have to think about other things. This obsessive-compulsive behavior becomes a defense mechanism.
Many studies have shown an overlap between eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. According to the American Journal of Psychiatry, more than 40 percent of people with eating disorders were also diagnosed with OCD.
For some people, anorexia is driven by a desire to be perfect. It's not a drive to be perfect-looking—or at least, it doesn't end up that way. Most people with anorexia go far beyond looking perfect and quickly begin to look ghastly. They are more inclined to try and hide their ravaged bodies.
No, this kind of perfection lies in the perfect execution of a plan—and what makes it even better is that it's something most other people can't do, so there’s a minor ego boost bonus.
Anorexia may have more in common with self-harm than most people realize. When people have trouble coping with problems, being close to death has a way of making one feel alive. The pain you suffer is cathartic it helps you relieve just enough pressure to help you hang on.
The myth that anorexia is all about vanity is harmful. The root of the problem is not about vanity, it's about people having trouble coping with life. Once we understand that, it's easier to relate to those who suffer from the disorder.
Signs and symptoms of anorexia
It can be difficult to tell if you, someone you know or a friend has anorexia nervosa. Someone who has lost a lot of weight may have another type of health condition. However, particular signs that indicate that someone may have anorexia include are: 12
- Fear of fatness or pursuit of thinness.
- Pre-occupation with body weight.
- Distorted perception of body shape or weight, for example the person thinks they are overweight when actually they are underweight.
- May underestimate the seriousness of the problem even after diagnosis.
- May tell lies about eating or what they have eaten, give excuses about why they are not eating, pretend they have eaten earlier.
- Not being truthful about how much weight they have lost.
- Finding it difficult to think about anything other than food.
- Strict dieting.
- Counting the calories in food excessively.
- Avoiding food they think is fattening.
- Eating only low-calorie food.
- Missing meals (restricting).
- Avoiding eating with other people.
- Hiding food.
- Cutting food into tiny pieces – to make it less obvious they have eaten little and to make food easier to swallow.
- Obsessive behaviour and rituals around eating.
- Excessive exercising.
- Social withdrawal and isolation, shutting yourself off from the world.
- Severe weight loss.
- Lack of sexual interest or potency.
- Difficulty sleeping and tiredness.
- Feeling dizzy.
- Stomach pains.
- Constipation and bloating.
- Feeling cold or having a low body temperature.
- Growth of downy (soft and fine) hair all over your body (called Lanugo).
- Getting irritable and moody.
- Difficulty concentrating.
- Low blood pressure.
At the suggestion of her pediatrician, “Rachel,” a 19-year-old college freshman at a competitive liberal arts college, was brought by her parents for psychiatric evaluation during spring break. According to her parents, Rachel had lost 16 lb since her precollege physical the previous August, falling to a weight of 104 lb at a height of 5 feet, 5 inches. Rachel’s chief complaint was that “everyone thinks I have an eating disorder.” She explained that she had been a successful student and field hockey player in high school. Having decided not to play field hockey in college, she began running several mornings each week during the summer and “cut out junk food” to protect herself from gaining “that freshman 10.” Rachel lost a few pounds that summer and received compliments from friends and family for looking so “fit.” She reported feeling more confident and ready for college than she had expected as the summer drew to a close. Once she began school, Rachel increased her running to daily, often skipped breakfast in order to get to class on time, and selected from the salad bar for her lunch and dinner. She worked hard in school, made the dean’s list the first semester, and announced to her family that she had decided to pursue a premed program. When Rachel returned home for Christmas vacation, her family noticed that she looked thin and tired. Despite encouragement to catch up on rest, she awoke early each morning to maintain her running schedule. She displayed a newfound interest in cooking and spent much of the day planning, shopping, and preparing dinner for her family. Rachel returned to school in January and thought she might be developing depression. Courses seemed less interesting, and she wondered whether the college she attended was right for her after all. She was sleeping less well and felt cold much of the day. Rachel’s parents asked her to step on the bathroom scale the night she returned home for spring break. Rachel was surprised to learn that her weight had fallen to 104 lb, and she agreed to a visit to her pediatrician, who found no evidence of a general medical illness and recommended a psychiatric consultation. Does Rachel have anorexia nervosa? If so, how should she be treated?
Anorexia nervosa is a serious mental illness characterized by the maintenance of an inappropriately low body weight, a relentless pursuit of thinness, and distorted cognitions about body shape and weight. Anorexia nervosa commonly begins during middle to late adolescence, although onsets in both prepubertal children and older adults have been described. Anorexia nervosa has a mortality rate as high as that seen in any psychiatric illness (1) and is associated with physiological alterations in virtually every organ system, although routine laboratory test results are often normal and physical examination may reveal only marked thinness.
DSM-IV (2) lists four criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa:
1. Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight
3. Disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight
4. In postmenarchal females, amenorrhea (i.e., the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles)
DSM-IV describes two subtypes of anorexia nervosa—the restricting subtype, consisting of those individuals whose eating behavior is characterized by restriction of type and quantity of food without binge eating or purging behaviors, and the binge-purge subtype, consisting of those who also exhibit binge eating and/or purging behaviors, such as vomiting or misuse of laxatives.
The DSM-IV criteria are most easily applied when patients are both sufficiently ill to fulfill all four diagnostic criteria and able to describe their ideation and behavior accurately. However, because ambivalence and denial frequently lead those with anorexia nervosa to minimize their symptoms, the clinician must make inferences about mental state and behavior.
An additional problem in diagnosis is that many individuals meet some but not all of the formal diagnostic criteria. For example, some women who meet all other criteria for anorexia nervosa continue to report some spontaneous menstrual activity. In a community-based sample of 84 female patients with full- or partial-syndrome anorexia nervosa, those with amenorrhea were not statistically different from those without across a number of clinical variables (3) , which raises questions about the utility of this diagnostic criterion (4 , 5) .
Proper diagnosis of any condition that includes low weight and restrictive eating must include consideration of other psychiatric and medical conditions that include these problems. Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and schizoaffective and delusional disorders, as well as anxiety disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, can include symptoms of food avoidance and distorted beliefs about one’s body. Medical conditions, including endocrine disturbances (such as thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus), gastrointestinal disturbances (such as inflammatory bowel and celiac disease), infections (such as hepatitis), and neoplastic processes may present with weight loss and should be considered when evaluating a patient for a possible eating disorder.
Anorexia nervosa has been recognized for centuries. Sir William Gull coined the term anorexia nervosa in 1873, but Richard Morton likely offered the first medical description of the condition in 1689 (6 , 7) . Despite its long-standing recognition, remarkably little is known about the etiology of, and effective treatment for, anorexia nervosa. A 2002 review in the American Journal of Psychiatry concluded that little progress was made during the second half of the 20th century in understanding the etiology, prognosis, or treatment of the disorder (8) .
Prevalence rates for anorexia nervosa are generally described as ranging from 0.5% to 1.0% among females (9 , 10) , with males being affected about one-tenth as frequently (10 , 11) . A recent study describing a large population-based cohort of Swedish twins born between 1935 and 1958 found the overall prevalence of anorexia nervosa among the 31,406 study participants to be 1.20% and 0.29% for females and males, respectively the prevalence of anorexia nervosa in both sexes was greater among those born after 1945 (12) .
The identification of risk factors for anorexia nervosa is challenging because the low incidence of the disorder makes the conduct of prospective studies of sufficient size very difficult. A variety of possible risk factors have been identified, including early feeding difficulties, symptoms of anxiety, perfectionistic traits, and parenting style, but none can be considered to have been conclusively demonstrated (13 , 14) . Similarly, cultural factors undoubtedly play some role in the development of anorexia nervosa, although the disorder’s long history and its presence in regions around the globe (15 – 18) suggest that factors other than culture provide central contributions to the development of the disorder. In fact, one review that considers historical reports of eating disorders, data regarding changing incidence rates of eating disorders over time, and the prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western cultures concludes that anorexia nervosa is not a culture-bound syndrome (19) . Genetic factors are increasingly accepted as important contributors to the risk of anorexia nervosa. Twin studies of eating disorders have consistently found that a significant fraction of the variability in the occurrence of anorexia nervosa can be attributed to genetic factors, with heritability estimates ranging from 33% to 84% (20) .
Course of Illness
The course of anorexia nervosa is highly variable, with individual outcomes ranging from full recovery to a chronic and severe psychosocial disability accompanied by physical complications and death. Intervention early in the course of illness and full weight restoration appear to be associated with the best outcomes. Adolescent patients have a better prognosis than do adults. One-year relapse rates after initial weight restoration approach 50% (21) . Intermediate and long-term follow-up studies examining clinical samples find that while a significant fraction of patients achieve full psychological and physical recovery, at least 20% continue to meet full criteria for anorexia nervosa on follow-up assessment, with many others reporting significant residual eating disorder symptoms, even if they do not meet full criteria for anorexia nervosa (22) .
A multitude of biological disturbances may occur in underweight patients, but most appear to be normal physiological responses to starvation. Clinically significant abnormalities may develop in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and fluid and electrolyte systems (23) . These abnormalities usually do not require specific treatment beyond refeeding, and they return to normal on weight restoration. A worrisome possible exception is reduced bone density since peak bone density is normally achieved during young adulthood, a prolonged episode of anorexia nervosa during this development stage may have a long-term impact on the risk of osteoporosis.
The striking physical and behavioral characteristics of anorexia nervosa have prompted the development of a variety of neurobiological hypotheses over the years. Recently, results of several investigations have suggested that abnormalities in CNS serotonin function may play a role in the development and persistence of the disorder (24 , 25) . Notably, studies of long-term weight-recovered patients have described indications of increased serotonin activity, such as elevated levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the CSF (26) and reduced binding potential of 5-HT 2A receptors, suggestive of higher levels of circulating CNS serotonin, in several brain regions (27) .
Kaye and colleagues (28) hypothesize that individuals with anorexia nervosa may have a trait disturbance characterized by high levels of CNS serotoninergic activity leading to symptoms of anxiety that are relieved by dieting, which leads to a reduction in serotonin production. However, this provocative hypothesis is based on assessments conducted after the onset of illness, which therefore cannot distinguish a predisposing trait from a long-lasting consequence of anorexia nervosa.
Another recent line of inquiry into the biological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa focuses on the perfectionistic and rigid behavioral style, including repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, characteristic of the syndrome. Investigators have hypothesized that these behaviors may result from a propensity to extreme fear conditioning and resistance to fear extinction (29) , suggesting that abnormalities may be present in limbic structures known to be involved in the acquisition of conditioned fear behavior. Other investigators have proposed that difficulties of individuals with anorexia nervosa in changing maladaptive behavior may relate to problems with set shifting, a function mediated by corticostriatothalamocortical neural circuits (30 , 31) .
Engaging a patient with anorexia nervosa to participate fully in the psychiatric evaluation may present a greater challenge than would be the case for patients with other disorders, including other eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Patients with anorexia nervosa often present for evaluation not because of their own interest in symptom relief but because of the concerns of family, friends, or health care providers. It may be necessary to obtain additional information from family members or others who know the patient well.
In addition, during the evaluation, it may be helpful to identify symptoms of the illness that are most likely to be ego-dystonic for the particular patient. Patients commonly minimize their concerns about low weight, but they may be more concerned, and therefore more likely to participate in the evaluation, if they recognize poor concentration, increased irritability, low bone density, hair loss, or feeling cold as developments associated with their restrictive eating pattern.
Medical issues should be reviewed, including weight and menstrual history. A complete review of systems is indicated, as anorexia nervosa can manifest a multitude of disturbances, including cardiovascular symptoms (e.g., bradycardia and other arrhythmias, including QTc prolongation, and hypotension), gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., slow motility, esophageal inflammation associated with purging), endocrinologic symptoms (low estrogen in females, low testosterone in males, osteopenia, and osteoporosis), and dermatologic changes, such as the development of a layer of fine hair (lanugo) on the face and extremities.
The evaluation should include specific questions about eating behaviors, including the number and content of all meals and snacks on a recent day. The clinician should inquire about 1) restricting behaviors, including limiting permissible foods, as well as decreasing caloric amounts 2) binge eating 3) purging behaviors, including vomiting and misuse of laxatives and diuretics and 4) exercise and hyperactive behaviors, including preferential walking and standing.
Given patients’ reluctance to endorse all of the diagnostic symptoms of anorexia nervosa on first meeting, the clinician may do well to identify the problem as “low weight” and explain that the treatment needs to include weight restoration, whether or not the patient meets full criteria for anorexia nervosa. Patients and their families are generally very interested in data from the World War II Minnesota study of semistarvation that documented the association between starvation and the development of psychological symptoms frequently identified with anorexia nervosa, such as depression, anxiety, obsessionality about food, and rigidity about eating behaviors (32) . The clinician may have better results engaging the patient with the identification of symptoms that are commonly associated with the state of starvation and that the patient has likely found troubling (such as thinking constantly about food) and therefore worth resolving.
All current treatment guidelines for anorexia nervosa emphasize weight restoration. There is no clearly defined algorithm for how to accomplish this goal, although common practice includes the selection of the least restrictive treatment setting that is likely to be effective. The APA practice guideline on treatment of eating disorders suggests that highly structured treatments are often needed to achieve weight gain for patients at weights <85% ideal body weight (33) . Hospital-based treatments may be used when weight is significantly low (e.g., <75% of ideal body weight) or when there has been rapid weight loss or medical signs of malnutrition, including significant bradycardia, hypotension, hypothermia, and so on.
Generally, outpatient treatments rely on a team of professionals. Medical monitoring, including weight and laboratory assessment, may be provided by an internist or pediatrician psychological support is offered by a psychiatrist or other therapist and nutritional counseling from a dietitian or nutritionist is often included. The team is generally led by the medical or psychiatric clinician—typically the one with the greatest expertise in the management of eating disorders.
Effective treatments generally assess outcome by weight and behavioral change. Nonspecific support needs to be paired with expectation of progress in measurable medical, behavioral, and psychological symptoms. Weight restoration is generally associated with improvement in a variety of psychological areas, including mood and anxiety symptoms (34 , 35) . In contrast, psychological improvement without accompanying changes in weight and eating behavior is of limited value. Patients and families should be informed about the physiology of weight gain, including the substantial number of calories required daily.
A family-based outpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa, also called the “Maudsley method,” may be helpful for younger patients (36) . This approach empowers the parents of a patient with anorexia nervosa to refeed their child, renegotiate the relationship between child and parents to involve issues other than food, and help their child resume normal adolescent development without an eating disorder. Several preliminary studies have shown promising results for family therapy with adolescent patients (37 , 38) .
For patients with anorexia nervosa who do not respond to outpatient treatments or those who do not have specialized outpatient treatments available in their vicinity, more structured treatments such as inpatient or partial hospital (day treatment) programs may be necessary. Structured treatments generally include observation during and after meals together with a consistently applied behavioral program that reinforces weight gain and normal eating behaviors. In recent years, the length of hospital stay for anorexia nervosa has decreased substantially because of economic limitations imposed by third-party payers nonetheless, hospital programs can achieve a rate of weight gain of 2–4 pounds per week during active treatment (39) .
Controlled Treatment Trials
While structured settings have been used successfully for weight restoration treatments, there is little empirical support for a specific level of care or a particular psychosocial treatment for anorexia nervosa. As mentioned, a family-based approach appears promising for children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa family therapy has been reported to be superior to individual therapy in two randomized controlled trials for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (40 , 41) . For adults with anorexia nervosa, a small study by Pike and colleagues (42) found cognitive behavior therapy superior to nutritional counseling in preventing relapse after hospital-based weight restoration. A recent study by McIntosh et al. (43) provocatively suggested that a patient-centered nonspecific supportive therapy may have been more helpful than cognitive behavior therapy or interpersonal therapy, as measured by a global rating of anorexia nervosa symptoms, in a sample of 56 underweight women with anorexia nervosa receiving treatment over a minimum of 20 weeks unfortunately, the amount of weight gain was modest and not significantly different among the three study treatments.
Randomized controlled trials of medications for patients with anorexia nervosa have consistently reported disappointing results. Several psychopharmacologic agents have been studied, without identification of clear benefit, although studies have been limited by small sample sizes and the fact that most of the trials have been conducted in hospital settings where other treatment interventions are offered in addition to study medication (44) . While it has been suggested that psychotropic medications are rendered ineffective in underweight patients by the biological impact of starvation, a recent study comparing fluoxetine and placebo in weight-restored patients notably found no significant benefit to medication during the year following nutritional rehabilitation (45) .
Summary and Recommendations
Although recognized for centuries, anorexia nervosa remains enigmatic, often difficult to treat, and potentially lethal. The current approach to treatment includes careful medical assessment, ongoing medical and weight monitoring, and behaviorally oriented treatment aimed at normalizing weight and eating behaviors. Family-based treatment appears promising for younger patients.
With Rachel, the patient in the vignette, her typical presentation, her low weight (corresponding to a body mass index of 17.3), and her reluctance to restore her weight to its previously healthy level led the evaluating psychiatrist to conclude that Rachel indeed had anorexia nervosa. The psychiatrist recommended that Rachel attempt outpatient treatment but explained to her and her family that many patients require more structured settings for successful weight restoration. The psychiatrist recommended that Rachel see an eating disorder specialist knowledgeable about the characteristics of anorexia nervosa and experienced in dealing with the challenges of its treatment. The outpatient treatment plan included weekly psychotherapy sessions, along with regular visits with her pediatrician and a nutritionist. Although Rachel had complained of “depression,” the psychiatrist elected not to prescribe antidepressant medication, as there is no evidence of its utility in anorexia nervosa, and weight gain in this disorder is known to lead to improvement in mood. In the meetings with Rachel, the psychiatrist used cognitive behavior therapy techniques to help her in reevaluating her assumptions that low weight was somehow essential to her sense of self-worth. Treatment outcome was assessed by changes in weight and eating behavior. Rachel’s family participated by helping to supervise meals at the start of treatment and offering her more autonomy around eating as she made progress. Rachel was asked to gain weight at a rate of >1 lb per week and knew that failure to meet this goal would lead to transfer of treatment to a more structured setting. Rachel reached and maintained her premorbid weight and was able to return to school 6 months after initial presentation.
Received July 19, 2007 accepted Aug. 6, 2007 (doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07071151). From the Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York and the Eating Disorders Research Unit, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Attia, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Dr., Unit 98, New York, NY 10032 [email protected] (e-mail).
CME Disclosure: Dr. Attia has received research support from Pfizer and Eli Lilly. Dr. Walsh has received research support from Abbott Pharmaceuticals.
APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
1. Sullivan PF: Mortality in anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 1995 152:1073–1074 Google Scholar
2. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994 Google Scholar
3. Garfinkel PE, Lin E, Goering P, Spegg C, Goldbloom D, Kennedy S, Kaplan AS, Woodside DB: Should amenorrhea be necessary for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa? evidence from a Canadian community sample. Br J Psychiatry 1996 168:500–506 Google Scholar
4. Cachelin F, Maher B: Is amenorrhea a critical criterion for anorexia nervosa? J Psychosom Res 199844:435–440 Google Scholar
5. Watson T, Andersen A: A critical examination of the amenorrhea and weight criteria for diagnosing anorexia nervosa. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2003108:175–182 Google Scholar
6. Pearce JM: Richard Morton: origins of anorexia nervosa. Eur Neurol 2004 52:191–192 Google Scholar
7. Silverman JA: Sir William Gull (1819–1890): limner of anorexia nervosa and myxoedema: an historical essay and encomium. Eat Weight Disord 1997 2:111–116 Google Scholar
8. Steinhausen H-C: The outcome of anorexia nervosa in the 20th century. Am J Psychiatry 2002 159:1284–1293 Google Scholar
9. Hoek HW, van Hoeken D: Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord 2003 34:383–396 Google Scholar
10. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr, Kessler RC: The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Biol Psychiatry 2007 61:348–358 Google Scholar
11. Lucas AR, Beard CM, O’Fallon WM, Kurland LT: 50-year trends in the incidence of anorexia nervosa in Rochester, Minn: a population-based study. Am J Psychiatry 1991 148:917–922 Google Scholar
12. Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Tozzi F, Furberg H, Lichtenstein P, Pedersen NL: Prevalence, heritability, and prospective risk factors for anorexia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006 63:305–312 Google Scholar
13. Jacobi C, Hayward C, de Zwaan M, Kraemer HC, Agras WC: Coming to terms with risk factors for eating disorders: application of risk terminology and suggestions for a general taxonomy: Psychol Bull 2004 130:19–65 Google Scholar
14. Striegel-Moore RH, Bulik CM: Risk factors for eating disorders. Am Psychologist 2007 62:181–198 Google Scholar
15. Lee HY, Lee EL, Pathy P, Chan YH: Anorexia nervosa in Singapore: an eight-year retrospective study. Singapore Med J 2005 46:275–281 Google Scholar
16. Njenga FG, Kangethe RN: Anorexia nervosa in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2004 81:188–193 Google Scholar
17. Bennett D, Sharpe M, Freeman C, Carson A: Anorexia nervosa among female secondary school students in Ghana. Br J Psychiatry 2004 185:312–317 Google Scholar
18. Hoek HW, van Harten PN, Hermans KME, Katzman MA, Matroos GE, Susser ES: The incidence of anorexia nervosa on Curaçao. Am J Psychiatry 2005 162:748–752 Google Scholar
19. Keel PK, Klump KL: Are eating disorders culture-bound syndromes? implications for conceptualizing their etiology. Psychol Bull 2003 129:747–769 Google Scholar
20. Bulik CM: Exploring the gene-environment nexus in eating disorders. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2005 30:335–339 Google Scholar
21. Pike KM: Long-term course of anorexia nervosa: response, relapse, remission, and recovery. Clin Psychol Rev 1998 18:447–475 Google Scholar
22. Fisher M: The course and outcome of eating disorders in adults and in adolescents: a review. Adolesc Med 2003 14:149–158 Google Scholar
23. Walsh BT: Eating disorders, in Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th ed. Edited by Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL. New York, McGraw-Hill (in press) Google Scholar
24. Kaye WH, Frank GK, Bailer UF, Henry SE: Neurobiology of anorexia nervosa: clinical implications of alterations of the function of serotonin and other neuronal systems. Int J Eat Disord 2005 37(suppl):S15–S19 Google Scholar
25. Attia E, Wolk S, Cooper T, Glasofer D, Walsh BT: Plasma tryptophan during weight restoration in patients with anorexia nervosa. Biol Psychiatry 2005 57:674–678 Google Scholar
26. Kaye WH, Gwirtsman HE, George DT, Ebert MH: Altered serotonin activity in anorexia nervosa after long-term weight restoration: does elevated cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid level correlate with rigid and obsessive behavior? Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991 48:556–562 Google Scholar
27. Frank GK, Kaye WH, Meltzer CC, Price JC, Greer P, McConaha C, Skovira K: Reduced 5-HT 2A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa. Biol Psychiatry 2002 52:896–906 Google Scholar
28. Kaye WH, Barbarich NC, Putnam K, Gendall KA, Fernstrom J, Fernstrom M, McConaha CW, Kishore A: Anxiolytic effects of acute tryptophan depletion in anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 2003 33:257–267 Google Scholar
29. Strober M: Pathologic fear conditioning and anorexia nervosa: on the search for novel paradigms. Int J Eat Disord 2004 35:504–508 Google Scholar
30. Holliday J, Tchanturia K, Landau S, Collier D, Treasure J: Is impaired set-shifting an endophenotype of anorexia nervosa? Am J Psychiatry 2005 162:2269–2275 Google Scholar
31. Steinglass J, Walsh BT, Stern Y: Set shifting deficit in anorexia nervosa. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2006 12:431–435 Google Scholar
32. Schiele BC, Brozek J: “Experimental neurosis” resulting from semistarvation in man. Psychosom Med 1948 10:31–50 Google Scholar
33. American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Eating Disorders, 3rd ed. Am J Psychiatry 2006 163(Jul suppl) Google Scholar
34. Meehan KG, Loeb KL, Roberto CA, Attia E: Mood change during weight restoration in patients with anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 2006 39:587–589 Google Scholar
35. Attia E, Haiman C, Walsh BT, Flater SR: Does fluoxetine augment the inpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa? Am J Psychiatry 1998 155:548–551 Google Scholar
36. Lock J, le Grange D, Agras WS, Dare C: Treatment Manual for Anorexia Nervosa: A Family Based Approach. New York, Guilford, 2001 Google Scholar
37. Lock J, le Grange D, Forsberg S, Hewell K: Is family therapy useful for treating children with anorexia nervosa? results of a case series. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006 45:1323–1328 Google Scholar
38. Lock J, Agras WS, Bryson S, Kraemer HC: A comparison of short- and long-term family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005 44:632–639 Google Scholar
39. Guarda AS, Heinberg LJ: Inpatient and partial hospital approaches to the treatment of eating disorders, in Handbook of Eating Disorders and Obesity. Edited by Thompson JK. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, 2004, pp 297–322 Google Scholar
40. Russell GF, Szmukler GI, Dare C, Eisler I: An evaluation of family therapy in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987 44:1047–1056 Google Scholar
41. Robin AL, Siegel PT, Moye AW, Gilroy M, Dennis AB, Sikand A: A controlled comparison of family versus individual therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999 38:1482–1489 Google Scholar
42. Pike KM, Walsh BT, Vitousek K, Wilson GT, Bauer J: Cognitive behavior therapy in the posthospitalization treatment of anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 2003 160:2046–2049 Google Scholar
43. McIntosh VVW, Jordan J, Carter FA, Luty SE, McKenzie JM, Bulik CM, Frampton CMA, Joyce PR: Three psychotherapies for anorexia nervosa: a randomized, controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 2005 162:741–747 Google Scholar
44. Attia E, Schroeder L: Pharmacologic treatment of anorexia nervosa: where do we go from here? Int J Eat Disord 2005 37(suppl):S60–S63 Google Scholar
45. Walsh BT, Kaplan AS, Attia E, Olmsted M, Parides M, Carter JC, Pike KM, Devlin MJ, Woodside B, Roberto CA, Rockert W: Fluoxetine after weight restoration in anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006 295:2605–2612 Google Scholar
- National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders. Find ANAD Support Groups and Eating Disorder Professionals in your area.
- National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders. Eating Disorders Helpline.
- National Eating Disorders Association. Help & Support.
- National Alliance on Mental Illness. NAMI Connection Recovery Support Group.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 06/27/2019.
- Rome ES, Strandjord SE. Eating Disorders. Pediatrics in Review 201637(8)323-336.
- Academy for Eating Disorders. Eating Disorders. A Guide to Medical Care. AED Report 2016. 3rd edition. Accessed 6/25/2019.
- National Eating Disorders Association. Anorexia Nervosa. Accessed 6/25/2019.
- Dickstein LP. Franco KN, Rome ES, Auron M. Recognizing, managing medical consequences of eating disorders in primary care. Cleve Clinic J Med 201481(4):255-263.
- National Alliance on Mental Illness. Eating Disorders. Accessed 6/25/2019.
- National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders. Eating Disorder Types and Symptoms. Anorexia Nervosa. Accessed 6/25/2019.
- Romano SJ. Chapter 20. Eating Disorders. In: Feldman MD, Christensen JF, eds. Behavioral Medicine: A Guide for Clinical Practice. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill 2008.
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PRIVACY OF INFORMATION
What is personal data? It is any information related to you, for example, your name, telephone, address, photograph, or fingerprints, as well as any information for your identification.
What is sensitive personal data? It is the data that, if unduly disclosed, would affect the most intimate sphere of the human being for example origin, health status, genetic information, sexual preferences, religious, philosophical, moral beliefs, union affiliation, political opinion, among others.
How do we guarantee the protection of your data?
- Appointing a responsible person in charge who will attend your requests for access, rectification, cancellation, and opposition of your personal data.
- With the necessary security measures to guarantee your data against misuse or illicit use, unauthorized access, or against the loss, alteration, theft, or modification of your personal information.
- Training staff.
- Informing you about how it will be used for your information.
What are the guiding principles of personal data protection? They are a series of minimum rules that should be observed by private entities that process personal data (individuals or corporations), ensuring the proper use of personal information. These principles are:
- Principle of Lawfulness: It refers to the commitment to be made by private entities (individuals or corporations) that process your information when requesting the provision of a service, respecting at all times the trust that is given to them for the proper use of your data.
- Principle of Consent: For private authorities to which the information is granted, it implies the duty to request express and written authorization so that the information can be processed.
- Quality Principle: Refers to the fact that the personal data held by individuals must be up-to-date and true that is used to fulfill the purposes that justified their treatment.
- Principle of Information: Refers to the right granted by the Law to know the main characteristics of the treatment of your personal data prior to sharing them and this is contained in the "Privacy Notice".
- Principle of Proportionality: Companies can only collect data that is strictly necessary and essential to meet the objective.
- Principle of Responsibility: Private entities (whether individuals or corporations) and those who comprise them, who handle personal data, must ensure that, whether inside or outside our country, the essential principles of personal data protection are complied with, committing to always ensure compliance with these principles and to be held accountable in the event of non-compliance.
What are ARCO Rights? Access, Rectification, Cancellation, and Opposition