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Where to find historical dream activity data?

Where to find historical dream activity data?



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Is it just me, or are we dreaming less? Maybe it's the computer screens in our face all day. Maybe that's just what happens when we get older.

I'm wondering if there's a resource of some kind to determine historical dream activity. Might it be possible to use Google Trends to determine dream activity (similar to how Google Flu tracks illness via search queries).

Or is Google too novel a tool, and are dreamers searching too randomly to track any meaningful delta in dream activity? If so, is there another resource that might provide meaningful dream data?


I think you need to distinguish dream activity and dream recall. I thought that everyone dreams every night. However, many factors influence whether we recall the dreams.

Thus, I think a more productive search would be to focus on the factors that influence dream recall, and perhaps the prominence of dreams in peoples lives.

I found one older article by Cohen (1973) which summarises research on the frequency of dream recall. He states that

Frequency of dream recall is affected by physiological, methodological, and psychological factors.

Beaulieu-Prevost and Zadra (2005) writes

Schonbar (1965) suggested that people who remember many dreams are generally interested in dreams, in trying to understand them, in increasing their dream recall frequency, and tend to have an overall positive attitude towards dreams.

Beaulieu-Prevost and Zadra (2005) then go on to cite numerous such studies.

Thus, the next question would be whether the factors that influence dream recall have changed over recent history. Palagini et al (2011) might provide a useful starting point as they review historical perspectives of dreaming.

References

  • Beaulieu-Prévost, D., & Zadra, A. (2005). Dream recall frequency and attitude towards dreams: a reinterpretation of the relation. Personality and individual differences, 38(4), 919-927.
  • Cohen, D. B. (1969). Frequency of dream recall estimated by three methods and related to defense preference and anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33(6), 661.
  • Palagini, L., & Rosenlicht, N. (2011). Sleep, dreaming, and mental health: A review of historical and neurobiological perspectives. Sleep medicine reviews, 15(3), 179-186.

Psychoanalysis

As a therapy psychoanalysis is a lengthy process, taking perhaps several years, and a practitioner has to undergo a course of psychoanalysis himself or herself before being considered qualified to practise. The aim is to gain a full understanding of how one's current behaviour was developed as a result of past experiences, especially those of early childhood. These early experiences have to be brought to consciousness and confronted, leading to CATHARSIS, or a release of energy, with the result that the personality becomes freer, less restricted by having to control the energies of the ID, or operate under over-strict demands of the SUPEREGO.

In psychiatric practice, 100 years after its original development, the method is found to be most useful for neurotic disorders in patients who are highly motivated to recover and of good educational background as self-insight and an interest in the theoretical basis appear to be involved in a positive outcome. It has sometimes been criticized as having no better record for recovery than time alone (Eysenck, 1961), and is lengthy and expensive.

As a wider psychosocial theory, psychoanalysis has been influential (if controversial) in sociology and, more generally, in social theory (e.g. MARCUSE, structuralist theorists such as LACAN, PSYCHOHISTORY). Psychoanalytic theories have been especially influential recently in FEMINISM, FEMINIST THEORY and FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY, although these theories constitute a major reworking of Freudian theory, especially in questioning the centrality of the symbolism of the phallus within Freud's writing and the problem that this presents for a genuinely feminist psychoanalytic theory (see CHODOROW, CIXOUS, KRISTEVA).


How to keep up with your New Year’s resolutions

The thought of keeping up with a New Year’s resolution all year can feel daunting, but luckily, there are plenty of strategies to help you persevere. You’d be surprised how far grit, organization, and support will get you! Below are tips to make your 2021’s resolutions stick.

First, identify your values and be sure that they’re true to you. “Let’s say your goal is to lose 20 pounds,” starts Dr. Wallin. “If your reason is to look good at your high school reunion next spring for other people, that’s external motivation. You anticipate other people regarding you in a positive way. On the other hand, if your reason to lose 20 pounds is to feel more vibrant or to reduce your health risks, that is an internally motivated goal.” If your goal is internal then it’s true to you and you’re more likely to stick with it.

Second, make a game plan and identify value-guided goals. Stenhoff suggests making immediate goals (something attainable in the next day), short-term goals (something attainable in a few days or weeks), medium-term goals (attainable over a few weeks and months), and long-term goals (attainable over a few months to a year). Breaking down big goals into smaller pieces is beneficial because you’ll see success sooner and not feel overwhelmed.

Third, set yourself up for success by creating an environment to support your resolution. “For example, we need to find ways to remind ourselves of what our current goals are,” explains Stenhoff. One way to do this is by establishing routines, writing them down, and putting them somewhere you’ll see every day, which could give you a sense of obligation to carry on.

Fourth, track your progress. Stenhoff suggests that tracking your progress should be based on something you can observe like the number of times you do something or how long you do something. This way you feel your accomplishments often and have the motivation to continue. Also, it’s vital to always celebrate and reward yourself when reaching a goal!

Lastly, be gracious with yourself throughout your journey. Language and the way you talk to yourself is powerful. There will be days where you perform better than others and it’s okay to have days where you don’t perform well at all—you’re human. However, “if we continue to fall short of our goals, we may need to think about whether the value we chose is actually a value of ours, if the goal we chose is appropriate, if we need to change things in our environment, or if the rewards we give ourselves are actually rewarding,” says Stenhoff.

This information is for educational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or condition. Always check with your doctor before changing your diet, altering your sleep habits, taking supplements, or starting a new fitness routine.

Kelsey Maloney

A New Jersey native, Kelsey Maloney is an Associate Editor at Fitbit currently living out her California dream in San Francisco. After receiving her Bachelor of Art's degree in Journalism, she backpacked for a year to several countries around the world, including to her favorite city – Cape Town, South Africa. She then made the leap to the West Coast to pursue her writing and editing career, formerly at Sunset Magazine. Kelsey is a travel and hot yoga enthusiast with an adoration for live music, snowboarding, Annie’s macaroni and cheese and a good IPA.

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A property records search can reveal more

Are property records public information? Yes! There are a couple of options at your disposal if you want to do a property records search.

Searching through these records, you can discover details like:

  • Chain of ownership
  • Sales history
  • Tax history
  • Changes to the home’s square footage

To get started, check to see whether your city or county has public records accessible online. You can do this by using the Public Records Online Directory portal. This will allow you to do a property history search for free.

First, click on the state where you’re searching on the interactive map display. Then, select which county the house is in. This will then show you a list of the different online public records that are maintained by the county.

For example, many counties now offer a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on their local government website. You can navigate to the house address on the interactive map and click on the property. You’ll then be given an option to view the parcel details.

From the parcel, you can learn more about:

  • Owner’s name
  • Mailing address
  • Property class
  • Acres
  • Year built
  • Architectural style
  • Basement type

Some online parcel details will also include a sketch vector of the house. From the sketch vector, you can learn what parts of the house are original and what parts are additions. It may also show you if the house has a wood deck with a roof, or a raised enclosed porch.

If you’re willing to shell out a few dollars, another option is using a service like Been Verified that can conduct a reverse address lookup. With this service, you can discover more about the current or previous property owners, as well as the sales history and home value of the house. Price plans for BeenVerified range from $17.48 per month to $26.89 per month.


5 Scientific Facts About Your Dreams

Throughout human history, dreams have been the subject of science and pseudoscience alike. In today’s crazy online world where you can’t always believe your eyes, we hope you’ll sleep better knowing that the following facts are the real deal.

1. Dream logic is neurologically logical

Your brain’s activity looks very different when you’re asleep, which sheds some light on the nature of dreams. For starters, your primary visual cortex is out of commission during sleep (because your eyes are closed), but your secondary visual cortex (which normally interprets outside visual stimuli) is still going at it, trying to make sense of the images the rest of your brain is conjuring up.

Your limbic system (hippocampus and fornix––the wormy tangle all up in the middle of your brain) is the primary control center for your emotions, and it becomes especially active during your dreams. This explains why dreams are so emotionally charged, and often deal with feelings of imminent danger. Meanwhile, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which controls logic and rationality, is practically dormant, which explains why you can dream yourself marrying Hugh Griffith in an cosmonaut suit and be like, “Can we have the guests throw sand instead of Cracker Jacks, Hughie? Birds tend to choke on the prizes.”

2. You also dream during “non-REM” sleep

By now everyone knows that we categorize human sleep in five stages: some deep stages with boring number-names, and REM, famously responsible for dream time. Au contraire! More recent research indicates that dreaming also occurs during non-REM sleep (slyly abbreviated as NREM). REM sleep is the stage closest to waking, though, so you’re more likely to remember REM dreams than those in NREM.

Since each sleep stage represents different brain activity, different stages will result in different types of dreams. During REM sleep, for instance, people typically report interacting with two to three characters outside of themselves––usually people they know in waking life––while NREM may host more characters, more of whom are strangers. At the same time, the dreamer more often initiates socially aggressive interactions in REM sleep, while NREM hosts friendlier social initiations. Makes it hard not to read a “don’t you dare wake me up” subtext into those REM dreams.

3. Pain Can Show Up in Dreams

While it’s never been proven that dreams themselves can produce pain, a few studies have suggested that real-world pain can incorporate into dreams. In one study, a lab-induced “pins and needles” sensation manifested as a problematic shoe-fitting in the subject’s dream, while more intense pain (like that experienced by healing burn victims in a 2002 study) can produce nightmares wherein the dreamer tries to escape the source of their pain, literally and metaphorically. In short, pain transcends the barrier between waking and dreaming life, and shows up in our dreams relatively untransformed.

4. Dreams Help You Learn

You’ve heard the term “Let me sleep on it,” from Meat Loaf and others, and it’s a good idea, scientifically speaking. That’s because your brain can teach itself while you sleep, thanks to a process Harvard neuroscience professor Robert Stickgold calls off-line memory reprocessing.

In his series of experiments, Stickgold had subjects perform simple tasks like recognizing words or hitting a digital target, and compared their progress with their sleep patterns. The logic is this: Any time you make a memory, that new information has to transfer between several different parts of your brain in order to stick around for awhile, and those same patterns correspond with the patterns of brain activity during sleep. Sure enough, subjects who slept on their lessons showed greater improvement. In his Tetris experiment, Stickgold’s subjects even reported dreaming about Tetris as the learning period went on, indicating a connection between the need to improve, dreams, and post-dream improvement.

5. Dreams do Affect Your Mood

You probably already knew this: The tone of a dream can set the tone of the following morning, for better or worse. But there’s more to it than that. “Daytime mood and social interactions” have been found to correlate with dream details––although universal patterns across dreams are almost impossible to quantify reliably. Details as seemingly arbitrary as the number of characters the dreamer encounters may have more to do with the person’s actual sleep patterns than actual dream content (see bullet #2). But as in Stickgold’s memory experiments, dreaming about stuff that’s bothering you can help the brain process during sleep what you might not be thrilled to process during the day (see bullet #5). In short: Dream on, little dreamer. It’s good for ya.


27 Dreams about Animals and Their Interpretation

Be aware that someone in your circle of friends, family or work is behaving in a mischievous way to undermine you.

Ants in your dream relate to work. If you observed them in their natural habitat and they were healthy and organised, it means the change of employment you were considering is a good idea. If they were crawling over you, it signifies setbacks in your current work situation.

Bears

Bears are associated with strength, security and power. They are family-orientated creatures and are linked to childhood and maternal instincts. Is there a family problem you need to attend to?

Bees are a symbol of good fortune and linked to communication. If they were buzzing around and busy, then this is a great sign. However, if they were dead or listless, it is an indication you should not put too much trust in so-called friends.

Bulls

Dreams featuring bulls usually mean tough opposition in some form or another, unless the bull was light in colour. The bull also represents anger and issues over territory.

Dreaming of cats might seem lovely and innocent, but in actual fact, cats are a symbol of magic and hidden powers. They are associated with feminine sorcery and this is a warning against treachery and deceit, particularly amongst your most trusted friends.

Dogs, on the other hand, are a symbol of loyalty, trust and unconditional love. This dream is related to good times with friends unless the dog behaves in an aggressive way. In which case, the dream is a warning not to trust your friends.

Donkeys

You wouldn’t guess, but love and sex are symbolised by the humble donkey, and especially if you are riding a white one. However, a braying donkey is a warning that a clandestine affair is about to be made public.

Elephants

To dream of these animals is a good sign. They represent the power of our emotions, strength of character and sheer steadfastness to conquer any situation.

Foxes

If the animal in your dreams was a fox, this is a warning that you need to use all your cunning and expertise to ward off danger from unscrupulous rivals.

Gorillas

Gorillas are strong but unpredictable. This dream is an indication of a misunderstanding that has caused you pain.

Horses

There are many different interpretations of horses in dreams. Basically, seeing horses is a good sign, this includes foals, horseshoes, racing horses and grooming them. If you were riding a horse, you should receive a rise in status, but if you were thrown off, expect some opposition to this rise.

Jackals

In real life, jackals are cunning and wily doglike wolf mammals that scavenge for food. In dreams, they are a sign not to trust overambitious friends with outlandish plans.

Leeches

As you might expect, leeches are hugely symbolic in dreams. If you dream about this bloodsucking slug-like creature, it means you are going to have to face a drain on your resources.

Lice are an indication of petty annoyances or grievances that are irritating but not major obstacles. They are typically due to the stupidity of others.

Lions

These animals in your dreams can have two meanings. Lion sounds very much like ‘lying’ and could be an indication you think someone close to you is lying, or that you are hiding a secret. On the other hand, lions are a symbol of leadership and majesty. Is someone jealous of your success?

Lizards

Lizards are all about quick-thinking, survival and having their wits about them. This is what you need to be. Be cautious when you deal with others, and especially keep your eyes open for false friends.

Magpies

To dream of magpies is a message from your subconscious to give up on that unrequited love. Whether it be a lover or a friendship, they are not interested, it is time to move on.

Moles

Any kind of burrowing animals in dreams are a sign of hidden emotions that we don’t or can’t face. They are also a symbol of innocence.

Mice in dreams are related to outside influences. They represent meddling in your affairs or unwelcome visitors.

Ostriches

This is another hugely symbolic dream that indicates a refusal to see or acknowledge what is going on around you. You must take your head out of the sand and examine the situation.

Peacocks

Peacocks are all about showing off and displays of grandeur and this dream is a warning of failure due to overconfidence and hubris on your part.

Rabbits

Rabbits in your dreams are an indication of increased responsibilities but ones you enjoy, not chores.

As you might expect, black rats are not a good sign. They denote the signs of hidden jealousy in close friends or family. However, white rats are benign and signify protective forces around you.

Ravens

These omens of bad fortune are a symbol of sadness and grief, usually suppressed by the dreamer.

Snakes

Snakes in dreams usually have sexual connotations. They are phallic symbols and represent our sexual urges. Another interesting factor about snakes is that they are also temperature-dependent. If the snake in your dream was cold and sluggish, this could mean you feel bored sexually.

Zebras

No two zebras have the same pattern of stripes, therefore, they are unique creatures. To dream about a zebra is an encouraging sign to expand your creativity to the next level.

These are just a few dreams about animals. If you have had an animal dream and it’s not on our list, let me know and I’ll look it up for you.

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Thank you for the informative article, however, I had dreams of either meeting or interacting with more than one Tasmanian Tiger on more than one occasion. Tasmanian Tigers in a dream usually means that you are you to be careful whom you entrust your deepest secrets / talk to / is a warning. It is also a solitude animal (and very rare if still around). More than that I could not find any other meaning. Would be interesting if any more meanings could be found about it, though.

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The Heavy Costs of Not Sleeping

Our preferred sleep times and our sleep requirements vary throughout our life cycle. Newborns tend to sleep between 16 and 18 hours per day, preschoolers tend to sleep between 10 and 12 hours per day, school-aged children and teenagers usually prefer at least nine hours of sleep per night, and most adults say that they require seven to eight hours per night (Mercer, Merritt, & Cowell, 1998 Statistics Canada, 2011). There are also individual differences in need for sleep. Some adults do quite well with fewer than six hours of sleep per night, whereas others need nine hours or more. The most recent study by Mental Health Canada (2014) suggests that adults should get between seven and nine hours of sleep per night (Figure 6.7, “Average Hours of Required Sleep per Night”), and yet 15% of Canadians average fewer than 6.5 hours and 47% of Canadians stated that they cut down on sleep in an attempt to squeeze more time out of the day.

Figure 6.7 Average Hours of Required Sleep per Night. The average Canadian adult reported getting only 6.5 hours of sleep per night, which is less than the recommended range proposes. [Long Description]

Getting needed rest is difficult in part because school and work schedules still follow the early-to-rise timetable that was set years ago. We tend to stay up late to enjoy activities in the evening but then are forced to get up early to go to work or school. The situation is particularly bad for university students, who are likely to combine a heavy academic schedule with an active social life and who may, in some cases, also work. Getting enough sleep is a luxury that many of us seem to be unable or unwilling to afford, and yet sleeping is one of the most important things we can do for ourselves. Continued over time, a nightly deficit of even only one or two hours can have a substantial impact on mood and performance (Figure 6.8).

Sleep has a vital restorative function, and a prolonged lack of sleep results in increased anxiety, diminished performance, and, if severe and extended, even death. Many road accidents involve sleep deprivation, and people who are sleep deprived show decrements in driving performance similar to those who have ingested alcohol (Hack, Choi, Vijayapalan, Davies, & Stradling, 2001 Williamson & Feyer, 2000). Poor treatment by doctors (Smith-Coggins, Rosekind, Hurd, & Buccino, 1994) and a variety of industrial accidents have also been traced in part to the effects of sleep deprivation.

Good sleep is also important to our health and longevity. It is no surprise that we sleep more when we are sick, because sleep works to fight infection. Sleep deprivation suppresses immune responses that fight off infection, and can lead to obesity, hypertension, and memory impairment (Ferrie et al., 2007 Kushida, 2005). Sleeping well can even save our lives. Dew and colleagues (2003) found that older adults who had better sleep patterns also lived longer.

Figure 6.8 The Effects of Sleep Deprivation. In 1964, 17-year-old high school student Randy Gardner remained awake for 264 hours (11 days) in order to set a new Guinness World Record. At the request of his worried parents, he was monitored by a U.S. Navy psychiatrist, Lt. Cmdr. John J. Ross. This chart maps the progression of his behavioural changes over the 11 days. [Long Description]


𠆏ree At Last’

As the March on Washington drew to a close, television cameras beamed Martin Luther King’s image to a national audience. He began his speech slowly but soon showed his gift for weaving recognizable references to the Bible, the U.S. Constitution and other universal themes into his oratory.

Pointing out how the country’s founders had signed a “promissory note” that offered great freedom and opportunity, King noted that “Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked ‘insufficient funds.&apos”

At times warning of the potential for revolt, King nevertheless maintained a positive, uplifting tone, imploring the audience to “go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.”


BIBLIOGRAPHY

In English, the most complete bibliography of Vygotsky’s writings can be found in Van der Veer and Valsiner, 1991, cited below. The six volumes of The Collected Works of L.S. Vygotsky, published by Plenum Publishers, provide a good idea of Vygotsky’s theories but are not complete. Omitted are, among other things, the early writings on literature and art and several psychological monographs.

WORKS BY VYGOTSKY

“Thought and Speech.” In Psycholinguistics, edited by Sol Saporta. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1961.

With Alexander R. Luria The Role of Speech in the Regulation of Normal and Abnormal Behavior. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1961.

Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1962.

“The Problem of Learning and Mental Development at School Age.” In Educational Psychology in the USSR, edited by Brian Simon and Joan Simon. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.

With Alexander R. Luria. Cognitive Development: Its Cultural and Social Foundations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Rieber, Robert W., ed. The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky. 6 vols. New York: Plenum Press, 1987–1999.

“On Psychological Systems.” In The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky. Vol. 3: Problems of the Theory and History of Psychology, edited by Robert W. Rieber and Jeffrey Wollock. New York: Plenum Press, 1997.

OTHER SOURCES

Boring, Edwin G. A History of Experimental Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1950.

Cole, Michael. Cultural Psychology: A Once and Future Discipline, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996. Interesting overview of the field of cultural psychology.

Haggbloom, Steven J., Renee Warnick, Jason E Warnick, et al. “The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century.” Review of General Psychology 6 (2002): 139–152.

Kozulin, Alex. Vygotsky’s Psychology: A Biography of Ideas. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990. Excellent presentation and interpretation of Vygotsky’s major ideas.

Kozulin, Alex, Boris Gindis, Vladimir S. Ageyev, and Suzanne M. Miller, eds. Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Lloyd, Peter, and Charles Fernyhough, eds. Lev Vygotsky: Critical Assessments. 4 vols. London: Routledge, 1999.

Moll, Luis, ed. Vygotsky and Education: Instructional Implications of Sociohistorical Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Sacks, Oliver. Awakenings. London: Picador, 1982.

———. An Anthropologist on Mars: Seven Paradoxical Tales. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

Scribner, Sylvia, and Michael Cole. The Psychology of Literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Sternberg, Robert J., and Elena L. Grigorenko. Dynamic Testing. New York: Cambridge Unversity Press, 2002.

Van der Veer, René. “Vygotsky’s Educational Thinking.” In Biographical Encyclopedia of Educational Thought. Vol. X, edited by Richard Bailey. London and New York: Continuum Publishers, 2007.

Van der Veer, René, and Jaan Valsiner. Understanding Vygotsky: A Quest for Synthesis. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, 1991. The most comprehensive historical analysis of the development of Vygotsky’s theories.

Wertsch, James V. Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985. In-depth analysis of Vygotsky’s work with the focus on his psycholinguistic ideas.

Zivin, Gail, ed. The Development of Self-Regulation through Private Speech. New York: John Wiley, 1979.


Where to find historical dream activity data? - Psychology

June 4, 2021

Conferencing in a Pandemic: Spreading Our (Virtual) Wings!

As many of us enter a break from teaching, conferences beckon – with new and old friends, cutting-edge research, and exciting pedagogical ideas. Since widespread lockdowns in March of 2020, some conferences were canceled but many others were held virtually for the first time ever. Some live conferences are returning, such as STP’s Annual Conference on Teaching (ACT) in October which will have virtual components, but also live ones in Louisville, KY! But many conferences in upcoming months remain fully virtual. And many of us will experience the perhaps-unexpected benefits of remotely learning from and connecting with each other!

First, it’s exciting that geography need not constrain our conference-going. Depending on where you live, you may have to log on at odd hours to attend the fully virtual European Society for Psychology Learning and Teaching conference (ESPLAT) in early September, the fully virtual Australian Psychology Learning and Teaching conference (AusPLAT) conference in mid-September, or the virtual parts of the ACT in October. I plan to attend all three (and there will be panel discussions among leaders from all three organizations at all three conferences), but I could not possibly travel to Australia, Germany, and then Louisville over the course of a month and a half – unless someone wants to loan me their private jet. I’ll be at ACT in Louisville for sure, but am grateful for the virtual option for the others.

To read the rest of this letter and past letters from the STP President, click here.

To read President-Elect Susan Nolan's initiatives for 2021 and the task force members for each initiative, click here.

Quick Links

Teaching of Psychology
(STP Members only)

STP News
(open access)


ELECTION RESULTS

Thank you to STP members who voted in the 2021 elections, and special thanks to all of the candidates. Here are the results of the election:

President
Diane L Finley, PhD

Vice-President for Diversity and International Relations
Teceta T. Tormala, PhD


A property records search can reveal more

Are property records public information? Yes! There are a couple of options at your disposal if you want to do a property records search.

Searching through these records, you can discover details like:

  • Chain of ownership
  • Sales history
  • Tax history
  • Changes to the home’s square footage

To get started, check to see whether your city or county has public records accessible online. You can do this by using the Public Records Online Directory portal. This will allow you to do a property history search for free.

First, click on the state where you’re searching on the interactive map display. Then, select which county the house is in. This will then show you a list of the different online public records that are maintained by the county.

For example, many counties now offer a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on their local government website. You can navigate to the house address on the interactive map and click on the property. You’ll then be given an option to view the parcel details.

From the parcel, you can learn more about:

  • Owner’s name
  • Mailing address
  • Property class
  • Acres
  • Year built
  • Architectural style
  • Basement type

Some online parcel details will also include a sketch vector of the house. From the sketch vector, you can learn what parts of the house are original and what parts are additions. It may also show you if the house has a wood deck with a roof, or a raised enclosed porch.

If you’re willing to shell out a few dollars, another option is using a service like Been Verified that can conduct a reverse address lookup. With this service, you can discover more about the current or previous property owners, as well as the sales history and home value of the house. Price plans for BeenVerified range from $17.48 per month to $26.89 per month.


Psychoanalysis

As a therapy psychoanalysis is a lengthy process, taking perhaps several years, and a practitioner has to undergo a course of psychoanalysis himself or herself before being considered qualified to practise. The aim is to gain a full understanding of how one's current behaviour was developed as a result of past experiences, especially those of early childhood. These early experiences have to be brought to consciousness and confronted, leading to CATHARSIS, or a release of energy, with the result that the personality becomes freer, less restricted by having to control the energies of the ID, or operate under over-strict demands of the SUPEREGO.

In psychiatric practice, 100 years after its original development, the method is found to be most useful for neurotic disorders in patients who are highly motivated to recover and of good educational background as self-insight and an interest in the theoretical basis appear to be involved in a positive outcome. It has sometimes been criticized as having no better record for recovery than time alone (Eysenck, 1961), and is lengthy and expensive.

As a wider psychosocial theory, psychoanalysis has been influential (if controversial) in sociology and, more generally, in social theory (e.g. MARCUSE, structuralist theorists such as LACAN, PSYCHOHISTORY). Psychoanalytic theories have been especially influential recently in FEMINISM, FEMINIST THEORY and FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY, although these theories constitute a major reworking of Freudian theory, especially in questioning the centrality of the symbolism of the phallus within Freud's writing and the problem that this presents for a genuinely feminist psychoanalytic theory (see CHODOROW, CIXOUS, KRISTEVA).


27 Dreams about Animals and Their Interpretation

Be aware that someone in your circle of friends, family or work is behaving in a mischievous way to undermine you.

Ants in your dream relate to work. If you observed them in their natural habitat and they were healthy and organised, it means the change of employment you were considering is a good idea. If they were crawling over you, it signifies setbacks in your current work situation.

Bears

Bears are associated with strength, security and power. They are family-orientated creatures and are linked to childhood and maternal instincts. Is there a family problem you need to attend to?

Bees are a symbol of good fortune and linked to communication. If they were buzzing around and busy, then this is a great sign. However, if they were dead or listless, it is an indication you should not put too much trust in so-called friends.

Bulls

Dreams featuring bulls usually mean tough opposition in some form or another, unless the bull was light in colour. The bull also represents anger and issues over territory.

Dreaming of cats might seem lovely and innocent, but in actual fact, cats are a symbol of magic and hidden powers. They are associated with feminine sorcery and this is a warning against treachery and deceit, particularly amongst your most trusted friends.

Dogs, on the other hand, are a symbol of loyalty, trust and unconditional love. This dream is related to good times with friends unless the dog behaves in an aggressive way. In which case, the dream is a warning not to trust your friends.

Donkeys

You wouldn’t guess, but love and sex are symbolised by the humble donkey, and especially if you are riding a white one. However, a braying donkey is a warning that a clandestine affair is about to be made public.

Elephants

To dream of these animals is a good sign. They represent the power of our emotions, strength of character and sheer steadfastness to conquer any situation.

Foxes

If the animal in your dreams was a fox, this is a warning that you need to use all your cunning and expertise to ward off danger from unscrupulous rivals.

Gorillas

Gorillas are strong but unpredictable. This dream is an indication of a misunderstanding that has caused you pain.

Horses

There are many different interpretations of horses in dreams. Basically, seeing horses is a good sign, this includes foals, horseshoes, racing horses and grooming them. If you were riding a horse, you should receive a rise in status, but if you were thrown off, expect some opposition to this rise.

Jackals

In real life, jackals are cunning and wily doglike wolf mammals that scavenge for food. In dreams, they are a sign not to trust overambitious friends with outlandish plans.

Leeches

As you might expect, leeches are hugely symbolic in dreams. If you dream about this bloodsucking slug-like creature, it means you are going to have to face a drain on your resources.

Lice are an indication of petty annoyances or grievances that are irritating but not major obstacles. They are typically due to the stupidity of others.

Lions

These animals in your dreams can have two meanings. Lion sounds very much like ‘lying’ and could be an indication you think someone close to you is lying, or that you are hiding a secret. On the other hand, lions are a symbol of leadership and majesty. Is someone jealous of your success?

Lizards

Lizards are all about quick-thinking, survival and having their wits about them. This is what you need to be. Be cautious when you deal with others, and especially keep your eyes open for false friends.

Magpies

To dream of magpies is a message from your subconscious to give up on that unrequited love. Whether it be a lover or a friendship, they are not interested, it is time to move on.

Moles

Any kind of burrowing animals in dreams are a sign of hidden emotions that we don’t or can’t face. They are also a symbol of innocence.

Mice in dreams are related to outside influences. They represent meddling in your affairs or unwelcome visitors.

Ostriches

This is another hugely symbolic dream that indicates a refusal to see or acknowledge what is going on around you. You must take your head out of the sand and examine the situation.

Peacocks

Peacocks are all about showing off and displays of grandeur and this dream is a warning of failure due to overconfidence and hubris on your part.

Rabbits

Rabbits in your dreams are an indication of increased responsibilities but ones you enjoy, not chores.

As you might expect, black rats are not a good sign. They denote the signs of hidden jealousy in close friends or family. However, white rats are benign and signify protective forces around you.

Ravens

These omens of bad fortune are a symbol of sadness and grief, usually suppressed by the dreamer.

Snakes

Snakes in dreams usually have sexual connotations. They are phallic symbols and represent our sexual urges. Another interesting factor about snakes is that they are also temperature-dependent. If the snake in your dream was cold and sluggish, this could mean you feel bored sexually.

Zebras

No two zebras have the same pattern of stripes, therefore, they are unique creatures. To dream about a zebra is an encouraging sign to expand your creativity to the next level.

These are just a few dreams about animals. If you have had an animal dream and it’s not on our list, let me know and I’ll look it up for you.

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Thank you for the informative article, however, I had dreams of either meeting or interacting with more than one Tasmanian Tiger on more than one occasion. Tasmanian Tigers in a dream usually means that you are you to be careful whom you entrust your deepest secrets / talk to / is a warning. It is also a solitude animal (and very rare if still around). More than that I could not find any other meaning. Would be interesting if any more meanings could be found about it, though.

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5 Scientific Facts About Your Dreams

Throughout human history, dreams have been the subject of science and pseudoscience alike. In today’s crazy online world where you can’t always believe your eyes, we hope you’ll sleep better knowing that the following facts are the real deal.

1. Dream logic is neurologically logical

Your brain’s activity looks very different when you’re asleep, which sheds some light on the nature of dreams. For starters, your primary visual cortex is out of commission during sleep (because your eyes are closed), but your secondary visual cortex (which normally interprets outside visual stimuli) is still going at it, trying to make sense of the images the rest of your brain is conjuring up.

Your limbic system (hippocampus and fornix––the wormy tangle all up in the middle of your brain) is the primary control center for your emotions, and it becomes especially active during your dreams. This explains why dreams are so emotionally charged, and often deal with feelings of imminent danger. Meanwhile, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which controls logic and rationality, is practically dormant, which explains why you can dream yourself marrying Hugh Griffith in an cosmonaut suit and be like, “Can we have the guests throw sand instead of Cracker Jacks, Hughie? Birds tend to choke on the prizes.”

2. You also dream during “non-REM” sleep

By now everyone knows that we categorize human sleep in five stages: some deep stages with boring number-names, and REM, famously responsible for dream time. Au contraire! More recent research indicates that dreaming also occurs during non-REM sleep (slyly abbreviated as NREM). REM sleep is the stage closest to waking, though, so you’re more likely to remember REM dreams than those in NREM.

Since each sleep stage represents different brain activity, different stages will result in different types of dreams. During REM sleep, for instance, people typically report interacting with two to three characters outside of themselves––usually people they know in waking life––while NREM may host more characters, more of whom are strangers. At the same time, the dreamer more often initiates socially aggressive interactions in REM sleep, while NREM hosts friendlier social initiations. Makes it hard not to read a “don’t you dare wake me up” subtext into those REM dreams.

3. Pain Can Show Up in Dreams

While it’s never been proven that dreams themselves can produce pain, a few studies have suggested that real-world pain can incorporate into dreams. In one study, a lab-induced “pins and needles” sensation manifested as a problematic shoe-fitting in the subject’s dream, while more intense pain (like that experienced by healing burn victims in a 2002 study) can produce nightmares wherein the dreamer tries to escape the source of their pain, literally and metaphorically. In short, pain transcends the barrier between waking and dreaming life, and shows up in our dreams relatively untransformed.

4. Dreams Help You Learn

You’ve heard the term “Let me sleep on it,” from Meat Loaf and others, and it’s a good idea, scientifically speaking. That’s because your brain can teach itself while you sleep, thanks to a process Harvard neuroscience professor Robert Stickgold calls off-line memory reprocessing.

In his series of experiments, Stickgold had subjects perform simple tasks like recognizing words or hitting a digital target, and compared their progress with their sleep patterns. The logic is this: Any time you make a memory, that new information has to transfer between several different parts of your brain in order to stick around for awhile, and those same patterns correspond with the patterns of brain activity during sleep. Sure enough, subjects who slept on their lessons showed greater improvement. In his Tetris experiment, Stickgold’s subjects even reported dreaming about Tetris as the learning period went on, indicating a connection between the need to improve, dreams, and post-dream improvement.

5. Dreams do Affect Your Mood

You probably already knew this: The tone of a dream can set the tone of the following morning, for better or worse. But there’s more to it than that. “Daytime mood and social interactions” have been found to correlate with dream details––although universal patterns across dreams are almost impossible to quantify reliably. Details as seemingly arbitrary as the number of characters the dreamer encounters may have more to do with the person’s actual sleep patterns than actual dream content (see bullet #2). But as in Stickgold’s memory experiments, dreaming about stuff that’s bothering you can help the brain process during sleep what you might not be thrilled to process during the day (see bullet #5). In short: Dream on, little dreamer. It’s good for ya.


Where to find historical dream activity data? - Psychology

June 4, 2021

Conferencing in a Pandemic: Spreading Our (Virtual) Wings!

As many of us enter a break from teaching, conferences beckon – with new and old friends, cutting-edge research, and exciting pedagogical ideas. Since widespread lockdowns in March of 2020, some conferences were canceled but many others were held virtually for the first time ever. Some live conferences are returning, such as STP’s Annual Conference on Teaching (ACT) in October which will have virtual components, but also live ones in Louisville, KY! But many conferences in upcoming months remain fully virtual. And many of us will experience the perhaps-unexpected benefits of remotely learning from and connecting with each other!

First, it’s exciting that geography need not constrain our conference-going. Depending on where you live, you may have to log on at odd hours to attend the fully virtual European Society for Psychology Learning and Teaching conference (ESPLAT) in early September, the fully virtual Australian Psychology Learning and Teaching conference (AusPLAT) conference in mid-September, or the virtual parts of the ACT in October. I plan to attend all three (and there will be panel discussions among leaders from all three organizations at all three conferences), but I could not possibly travel to Australia, Germany, and then Louisville over the course of a month and a half – unless someone wants to loan me their private jet. I’ll be at ACT in Louisville for sure, but am grateful for the virtual option for the others.

To read the rest of this letter and past letters from the STP President, click here.

To read President-Elect Susan Nolan's initiatives for 2021 and the task force members for each initiative, click here.

Quick Links

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ELECTION RESULTS

Thank you to STP members who voted in the 2021 elections, and special thanks to all of the candidates. Here are the results of the election:

President
Diane L Finley, PhD

Vice-President for Diversity and International Relations
Teceta T. Tormala, PhD


𠆏ree At Last’

As the March on Washington drew to a close, television cameras beamed Martin Luther King’s image to a national audience. He began his speech slowly but soon showed his gift for weaving recognizable references to the Bible, the U.S. Constitution and other universal themes into his oratory.

Pointing out how the country’s founders had signed a “promissory note” that offered great freedom and opportunity, King noted that “Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked ‘insufficient funds.&apos”

At times warning of the potential for revolt, King nevertheless maintained a positive, uplifting tone, imploring the audience to “go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.”


How to keep up with your New Year’s resolutions

The thought of keeping up with a New Year’s resolution all year can feel daunting, but luckily, there are plenty of strategies to help you persevere. You’d be surprised how far grit, organization, and support will get you! Below are tips to make your 2021’s resolutions stick.

First, identify your values and be sure that they’re true to you. “Let’s say your goal is to lose 20 pounds,” starts Dr. Wallin. “If your reason is to look good at your high school reunion next spring for other people, that’s external motivation. You anticipate other people regarding you in a positive way. On the other hand, if your reason to lose 20 pounds is to feel more vibrant or to reduce your health risks, that is an internally motivated goal.” If your goal is internal then it’s true to you and you’re more likely to stick with it.

Second, make a game plan and identify value-guided goals. Stenhoff suggests making immediate goals (something attainable in the next day), short-term goals (something attainable in a few days or weeks), medium-term goals (attainable over a few weeks and months), and long-term goals (attainable over a few months to a year). Breaking down big goals into smaller pieces is beneficial because you’ll see success sooner and not feel overwhelmed.

Third, set yourself up for success by creating an environment to support your resolution. “For example, we need to find ways to remind ourselves of what our current goals are,” explains Stenhoff. One way to do this is by establishing routines, writing them down, and putting them somewhere you’ll see every day, which could give you a sense of obligation to carry on.

Fourth, track your progress. Stenhoff suggests that tracking your progress should be based on something you can observe like the number of times you do something or how long you do something. This way you feel your accomplishments often and have the motivation to continue. Also, it’s vital to always celebrate and reward yourself when reaching a goal!

Lastly, be gracious with yourself throughout your journey. Language and the way you talk to yourself is powerful. There will be days where you perform better than others and it’s okay to have days where you don’t perform well at all—you’re human. However, “if we continue to fall short of our goals, we may need to think about whether the value we chose is actually a value of ours, if the goal we chose is appropriate, if we need to change things in our environment, or if the rewards we give ourselves are actually rewarding,” says Stenhoff.

This information is for educational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or condition. Always check with your doctor before changing your diet, altering your sleep habits, taking supplements, or starting a new fitness routine.

Kelsey Maloney

A New Jersey native, Kelsey Maloney is an Associate Editor at Fitbit currently living out her California dream in San Francisco. After receiving her Bachelor of Art's degree in Journalism, she backpacked for a year to several countries around the world, including to her favorite city – Cape Town, South Africa. She then made the leap to the West Coast to pursue her writing and editing career, formerly at Sunset Magazine. Kelsey is a travel and hot yoga enthusiast with an adoration for live music, snowboarding, Annie’s macaroni and cheese and a good IPA.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

In English, the most complete bibliography of Vygotsky’s writings can be found in Van der Veer and Valsiner, 1991, cited below. The six volumes of The Collected Works of L.S. Vygotsky, published by Plenum Publishers, provide a good idea of Vygotsky’s theories but are not complete. Omitted are, among other things, the early writings on literature and art and several psychological monographs.

WORKS BY VYGOTSKY

“Thought and Speech.” In Psycholinguistics, edited by Sol Saporta. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1961.

With Alexander R. Luria The Role of Speech in the Regulation of Normal and Abnormal Behavior. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1961.

Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1962.

“The Problem of Learning and Mental Development at School Age.” In Educational Psychology in the USSR, edited by Brian Simon and Joan Simon. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.

With Alexander R. Luria. Cognitive Development: Its Cultural and Social Foundations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Rieber, Robert W., ed. The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky. 6 vols. New York: Plenum Press, 1987–1999.

“On Psychological Systems.” In The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky. Vol. 3: Problems of the Theory and History of Psychology, edited by Robert W. Rieber and Jeffrey Wollock. New York: Plenum Press, 1997.

OTHER SOURCES

Boring, Edwin G. A History of Experimental Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1950.

Cole, Michael. Cultural Psychology: A Once and Future Discipline, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996. Interesting overview of the field of cultural psychology.

Haggbloom, Steven J., Renee Warnick, Jason E Warnick, et al. “The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century.” Review of General Psychology 6 (2002): 139–152.

Kozulin, Alex. Vygotsky’s Psychology: A Biography of Ideas. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990. Excellent presentation and interpretation of Vygotsky’s major ideas.

Kozulin, Alex, Boris Gindis, Vladimir S. Ageyev, and Suzanne M. Miller, eds. Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Lloyd, Peter, and Charles Fernyhough, eds. Lev Vygotsky: Critical Assessments. 4 vols. London: Routledge, 1999.

Moll, Luis, ed. Vygotsky and Education: Instructional Implications of Sociohistorical Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Sacks, Oliver. Awakenings. London: Picador, 1982.

———. An Anthropologist on Mars: Seven Paradoxical Tales. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

Scribner, Sylvia, and Michael Cole. The Psychology of Literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Sternberg, Robert J., and Elena L. Grigorenko. Dynamic Testing. New York: Cambridge Unversity Press, 2002.

Van der Veer, René. “Vygotsky’s Educational Thinking.” In Biographical Encyclopedia of Educational Thought. Vol. X, edited by Richard Bailey. London and New York: Continuum Publishers, 2007.

Van der Veer, René, and Jaan Valsiner. Understanding Vygotsky: A Quest for Synthesis. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, 1991. The most comprehensive historical analysis of the development of Vygotsky’s theories.

Wertsch, James V. Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985. In-depth analysis of Vygotsky’s work with the focus on his psycholinguistic ideas.

Zivin, Gail, ed. The Development of Self-Regulation through Private Speech. New York: John Wiley, 1979.


The Heavy Costs of Not Sleeping

Our preferred sleep times and our sleep requirements vary throughout our life cycle. Newborns tend to sleep between 16 and 18 hours per day, preschoolers tend to sleep between 10 and 12 hours per day, school-aged children and teenagers usually prefer at least nine hours of sleep per night, and most adults say that they require seven to eight hours per night (Mercer, Merritt, & Cowell, 1998 Statistics Canada, 2011). There are also individual differences in need for sleep. Some adults do quite well with fewer than six hours of sleep per night, whereas others need nine hours or more. The most recent study by Mental Health Canada (2014) suggests that adults should get between seven and nine hours of sleep per night (Figure 6.7, “Average Hours of Required Sleep per Night”), and yet 15% of Canadians average fewer than 6.5 hours and 47% of Canadians stated that they cut down on sleep in an attempt to squeeze more time out of the day.

Figure 6.7 Average Hours of Required Sleep per Night. The average Canadian adult reported getting only 6.5 hours of sleep per night, which is less than the recommended range proposes. [Long Description]

Getting needed rest is difficult in part because school and work schedules still follow the early-to-rise timetable that was set years ago. We tend to stay up late to enjoy activities in the evening but then are forced to get up early to go to work or school. The situation is particularly bad for university students, who are likely to combine a heavy academic schedule with an active social life and who may, in some cases, also work. Getting enough sleep is a luxury that many of us seem to be unable or unwilling to afford, and yet sleeping is one of the most important things we can do for ourselves. Continued over time, a nightly deficit of even only one or two hours can have a substantial impact on mood and performance (Figure 6.8).

Sleep has a vital restorative function, and a prolonged lack of sleep results in increased anxiety, diminished performance, and, if severe and extended, even death. Many road accidents involve sleep deprivation, and people who are sleep deprived show decrements in driving performance similar to those who have ingested alcohol (Hack, Choi, Vijayapalan, Davies, & Stradling, 2001 Williamson & Feyer, 2000). Poor treatment by doctors (Smith-Coggins, Rosekind, Hurd, & Buccino, 1994) and a variety of industrial accidents have also been traced in part to the effects of sleep deprivation.

Good sleep is also important to our health and longevity. It is no surprise that we sleep more when we are sick, because sleep works to fight infection. Sleep deprivation suppresses immune responses that fight off infection, and can lead to obesity, hypertension, and memory impairment (Ferrie et al., 2007 Kushida, 2005). Sleeping well can even save our lives. Dew and colleagues (2003) found that older adults who had better sleep patterns also lived longer.

Figure 6.8 The Effects of Sleep Deprivation. In 1964, 17-year-old high school student Randy Gardner remained awake for 264 hours (11 days) in order to set a new Guinness World Record. At the request of his worried parents, he was monitored by a U.S. Navy psychiatrist, Lt. Cmdr. John J. Ross. This chart maps the progression of his behavioural changes over the 11 days. [Long Description]


Watch the video: Dream Report with Wonderware InTouch real-time and historical LGH data (August 2022).