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What are the differences between Orch OR and Hartley's vibratiuncles?

What are the differences between Orch OR and Hartley's vibratiuncles?



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Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff have a theory called Orgastrated Objective Reduction or Orch OR, and they claim this has been confirmed. The article says:

"The origin of consciousness reflects our place in the universe, the nature of our existence. Did consciousness evolve from complex computations among brain neurons, as most scientists assert? Or has consciousness, in some sense, been here all along, as spiritual approaches maintain?' ask Hameroff and Penrose in the current review. 'This opens a potential Pandora's Box, but our theory accommodates both these views, suggesting consciousness derives from quantum vibrations in microtubules, protein polymers inside brain neurons, which both govern neuronal and synaptic function, and connect brain processes to self-organizing processes in the fine scale, 'proto-conscious' quantum structure of reality."

In the 18th century, David Hartley proposed in his book Observations of Man that counciousness arises when particles of matter vibrate in our brain. Wikipedia says:

Hartley's physical theory gave birth to the modern study of the intimate connection of physiological and psychical facts. He believed that sensation is the result of a vibration of the minute particles of the medullary substance of the nerves, to account for which he postulated, with Newton, a subtle elastic ether, rare in the interstices of solid bodies and in their close neighbourhood, and denser as it recedes from them. Pleasure is the result of moderate vibrations, pain of vibrations so violent as to break the continuity of the nerves. These vibrations leave behind them in the brain a tendency to fainter vibrations or "vibratiuncles" of a similar kind, which correspond to "ideas of sensation." This accounts for memory.

Joseph Priestley expanded on this idea in his essay Disquisitions Relating to Matter and Spirit. Priestley believed that all matter had the power of attraction and repulsion (fundamental interactions?) and that perception and thought arises from this phenomena in our brain through association. Priestley says:

Nothing but a precise and definite knowledge of the nature of perception and thought can authorize any person to affirm, whether they may not belong to an extended substance, which has also the properties of attraction and repulsion. Seeing, therefore, no sort of reason to imagine that these different properties are really inconsistent any more than the different properties of resistance and extension, I am, of course, under the necessity of being guided by the phenomena in my conclusions concerning the proper feat of the powers of perception and thought.

Giving Hartley and Priestley a little latitude because they lived 300 years ago, is Orch OR basically a reworking of their theories?


As far as I can tell, the common theme is that "vibration" is involved in both of them. But that's where the similarities seem to stop.

Hartley formulated specific hypotheses such as

Pleasure is the result of moderate vibrations, pain of vibrations so violent as to break the continuity of the nerves.

which we now know it's not exactly how these sensations are differentiated, but actually wasn't a bad prediction given the scientific knowledge at the time.

On the other hand Hartley postulated these vibrations to be transmitted by ether, which of course we now know does not exist.

Microtubules are real, but whether quantum vibrations in them have anything to do with consciousness is another matter. As far as I know there's no convincing evidence for it. The Orch OR article on Wikipedia discusses some theoretical criticism as well.


Contents

Calloway was born in Rochester, New York on Christmas Day in 1907 to an African American family. [7] His mother, Martha Eulalia Reed, was a Morgan State College graduate, teacher, and church organist. His father, Cabell Calloway Jr., graduated from Lincoln University of Pennsylvania in 1898, [8] [9] and worked as a lawyer and in real estate. The family moved to Baltimore, Maryland when Calloway was 11. [10] Soon after his father died and his mother remarried to John Nelson Fortune. [11]

Calloway grew up in the West Baltimore neighborhood of Druid Hill. He often skipped school to earn money by selling newspapers, shining shoes, and cooling down horses at the Pimlico racetrack where he developed an interest for racing and betting the horses. [12] [13] After he was caught playing dice on the church steps, his mother sent him to Downingtown Industrial and Agricultural School in 1921, a reform school run by his mother's uncle in Chester County, Pennsylvania. [13]

Calloway resumed hustling when he returned to Baltimore and worked as a caterer while he improved his studies in school. [13] He began private vocal lessons in 1922, and studied music throughout his formal schooling. Despite his parents' and teachers' disapproval of jazz, he began performing in nightclubs in Baltimore. His mentors included drummer Chick Webb and pianist Johnny Jones. Calloway joined his high school basketball team, and in his senior year he started playing professional basketball with the Baltimore Athenians, a team of the Negro Professional Basketball League. [14] He graduated from Frederick Douglass High School in 1925. [10] [15]

1927–1929: Early career Edit

In 1927, Calloway joined his older sister, Blanche Calloway, on tour for the popular black musical revue Plantation Days. [11] His sister became an accomplished bandleader before him, and he often credited her as his inspiration for entering show business. [16] Calloway's mother wanted him to be a lawyer like his father, so once the tour ended he enrolled at Crane College in Chicago, but he was more interested in singing and entertaining. While at Crane he turned down the opportunity to play basketball for the Harlem Globetrotters to pursue a singing career. [13]

Calloway spent most of his nights at Chicago's Dreamland Café, Sunset Cafe, and Club Berlin, performing as a singer, drummer, and master of ceremonies. [11] At Sunset Cafe, he was an understudy for singer Adelaide Hall. There he met and performed with Louis Armstrong, who taught him to sing in the scat style. He left school to sing with the Alabamians band. [17]

In 1929, Calloway relocated to New York with the band. They opened at the Savoy Ballroom on September 20, 1929, but they were not up to par with Cecil Scott's band. The Alabamians broke up and Armstrong recommended Calloway as a replacement singer in the musical revue Connie's Hot Chocolates. [11] He established himself as a vocalist singing "Ain't Misbehavin'" by Fats Waller. [18] While featured in the musical, The Missourians asked Calloway to front their band. [19]

1930–1955: Success Edit

In 1930, The Missourians became known as Cab Calloway and His Orchestra. At the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York, the band was hired in 1931 to substitute for the Duke Ellington Orchestra while they were on tour. Their popularity led to a permanent position. The band also performed twice a week for radio broadcasts on NBC. Calloway appeared on radio programs with Walter Winchell and Bing Crosby and was the first African American to have a nationally syndicated radio show. [4] During the depths of the Great Depression, Calloway was earning $50,000 a year at 23 years old. [18]

In 1931, Calloway recorded his most famous song, "Minnie the Moocher". It is the first single song by an African American to sell a million records. [4] "The Old Man of the Mountain", "St. James Infirmary Blues", and "Minnie the Moocher" were performed in three Betty Boop cartoons: Minnie the Moocher (1932), Snow White (1933), and The Old Man of the Mountain (1933). Calloway performed voice over for these cartoons, and through rotoscoping, his dance steps were the basis of the characters' movements. [20] He scheduled concerts in some communities to coincide with the release of the films to take advantage of the publicity.

As a result of the success of "Minnie the Moocher", Calloway became identified with its chorus, gaining the nickname "The Hi De Ho Man". [21] He performed in the 1930s in a series of short films for Paramount. Calloway's and Ellington's groups were featured on film more than any other jazz orchestras of the era. In these films, Calloway can be seen performing a gliding backstep dance move, which some observers have described as the precursor to Michael Jackson's moonwalk. Calloway said 50 years later, "it was called The Buzz back then." [22] The 1933 film International House featured Calloway performing his classic song, "Reefer Man", a tune about a man who smokes marijuana. [23] Fredi Washington was cast as Calloway's love interest in Cab Calloway's Hi-De-Ho (1934). [24] Lena Horne made her film debut as a dancer in Cab Calloway's Jitterbug Party (1935). [25]

Calloway made his first Hollywood feature film appearance opposite Al Jolson in The Singing Kid (1936). He sang several duets with Jolson, and the film included Calloway's band and cast of 22 Cotton Club dancers from New York. [26] According to film critic Arthur Knight, the creators of the film intended to "erase and celebrate boundaries and differences, including most emphatically the color line. when Calloway begins singing in his characteristic style – in which the words are tools for exploring rhythm and stretching melody – it becomes clear that American culture is changing around Jolson and with (and through) Calloway". [27] [28] : watch

Calloway's band recorded for Brunswick and the ARC dime store labels (Banner, Cameo, Conqueror, Perfect, Melotone, Banner, Oriole) from 1930 to 1932, when he signed with RCA Victor for a year. He returned to Brunswick in late 1934 through 1936, then with Variety, run by his manager, Irving Mills. He remained with Mills when the label collapsed during the Depression. Their sessions were continued by Vocalion through 1939 and OKeh through 1942. After an AFM recording ban due to the 1942–44 musicians' strike ended, Calloway continued to record.

In 1938, Calloway released, Cab Calloway's Cat-ologue: A "Hepster's" Dictionary, the first dictionary published by an African-American. It became the official jive language reference book of the New York Public Library. [29] A revised version of the book was released with Professor Cab Calloway’s Swingformation Bureau in 1939. He released the last edition, The New Cab Calloway’s Hepsters Dictionary: Language of Jive, in 1944. [30] On a BBC Radio documentary about the dictionary in 2014, Poet Lemn Sissay stated, "Cab Calloway was taking ownership of language for a people who, just a few generations before, had their own languages taken away." [31]

Calloway's band in the 1930s and 1940s included many notable musicians, such as Ben Webster, Illinois Jacquet, Milt Hinton, Danny Barker, Doc Cheatham, Ed Swayze, Cozy Cole, Eddie Barefield, and Dizzy Gillespie. Calloway later recalled, "What I expected from my musicians was what I was selling: the right notes with precision, because I would build a whole song around a scat or dance step." [18] Calloway and his band formed baseball and basketball teams. [32] [33] They played each other while on the road, play against local semi-pro teams, and play charity games. [34] His renown as a talented musician was such that, in the opening scene of the 1940 musical film, Strike Up the Band, starring Mickey Rooney and Judy Garland, Rooney's character is admonished by his music teacher, "You are not Cab Calloway", after playing an improvised drum riff in the middle of a band lesson.

In 1941, Calloway fired Gillespie from his orchestra after an onstage fracas erupted when Calloway was hit with spitballs. He wrongly accused Gillespie, who stabbed Calloway in the leg with a small knife. [35]

From 1941 to 1942, Calloway hosted a weekly radio quiz show called The Cab Calloway Quizzicale. [36] Calling himself "Doctor" Calloway, it was a parody of The College of Musical Knowledge, a radio contest created by bandleader Kay Kyser. [37] During the years of World War II, Calloway entertained troops in United States before they departed overseas. [38] The Calloway Orchestra also recorded songs full of social commentary including “Doing the Reactionary,” “The Führer’s Got the Jitters,” [39] “The Great Lie,” “We’ll Gather Lilacs,” and “My Lament for V Day.” [40]

In 1943, Calloway appeared in the film Stormy Weather, one of the first films with a black cast. [41] The film featured other top performers of the time, including Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, Lena Horne, The Nicholas Brothers, and Fats Waller. Calloway would host Horne's character Selina Rogers as she performed the film's title song as part of a big, all-star for World War II soldiers. [42]

Calloway wrote a humorous pseudo-gossip column called "Coastin' with Cab" for Song Hits magazine. It was a collection of celebrity snippets such as the following in the May 1946 issue: "Benny Goodman was dining at Ciro's steak house in New York when a very homely girl entered. 'If her face is her fortune,' Benny quipped, 'she'd be tax-free'." In the late 1940s, however, Calloway's bad financial decisions and his gambling caused his band to break up. [17]

In 1953, he played the prominent role of "Sportin' Life" in a production of Porgy and Bess with William Warfield and Leontyne Price as the title characters.

1956–1960: Cotton Club Revue Edit

Calloway and his daughter Lael recorded "Little Child", an adaption of "Little Boy and the Old Man". Released on ABC-Paramount, the single charted on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1956. [43] [3]

In 1956, Clarence Robinson, who produced revues at the original Cotton Club and the Apollo Theater, and choreographed the movie Stormy Weather, cast Calloway as the main attraction for his project in Miami. The Cotton Club of Miami featured a troupe of 48 people, including singer Sallie Blair, George Kirby, Abbey Lincoln, and the dance troupe of Norma Miller. The success of the shows led to the Cotton Club Revue of 1957 which had stops at the Royal Nevada Hotel in Las Vegas, the Theatre Under The Sky in Central Park, Town Casino in Buffalo.

For the second season, Lee Sherman was the choreographer of The Cotton Club Revue of 1958, which starred Calloway. The revue featured tap dancing prodigies Maurice Hines and Gregory Hines. [44]

In March 1958, Calloway released his album Cotton Club Revue of 1958 on Gone Records. It was produced by George Goldner, conducted and arranged by Eddie Barefield. That year, Calloway appeared in the film St. Louis Blues, the life story of W.C. Handy, featuring Nat King Cole and Eartha Kitt. [45]

The Cotton Club Revue of 1959 traveled to South America for engagements in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. They also stopped in Uruguay and Argentina before returning to North America which included a run on Broadway. [46] Directed by Mervyn Nelson and choreographed by Joel Nobel, this edition featured Ketty Lester, The Three Chocolateers. The revue toured Europe in 1959 and 1960, bringing their act to Madrid, Paris, and London.

1961–1993: Later years Edit

Calloway remained a household name due to TV appearances and occasional concerts in the US and Europe. In 1961 and 1962, he toured with the Harlem Globetrotters, providing halftime entertainment during games. [47] [48]

Calloway was cast as "Yeller" in the film The Cincinnati Kid (1965) with Steve McQueen, Ann-Margret, and Edward G. Robinson. Calloway appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show on March 19, 1967, with his daughter Chris Calloway. [49] In 1967, he co-starred with Pearl Bailey as Horace Vandergelder in an all-black cast of Hello, Dolly! on Broadway during its original run. Chris Calloway also joined the cast as Minnie Fay. [50] The new cast revived the flagging business for the show [51] and RCA Victor released a new cast recording, rare for the time. In 1973–74, Calloway was featured in an unsuccessful Broadway revival of The Pajama Game with Hal Linden and Barbara McNair.

His autobiography, Of Minnie the Moocher and Me was published in 1976. It included his complete Hepster's Dictionary as an appendix. In 1978, Calloway released a disco version of "Minnie the Moocher" on RCA which reached the Billboard R&B chart. [52] [3] Calloway was introduced to a new generation when he appeared in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers performing "Minnie the Moocher". [2]

In 1985, Calloway and his Orchestra appeared at The Ritz London Hotel where he was filmed for a 60-minute BBC TV show called The Cotton Club Comes to the Ritz. Adelaide Hall, Doc Cheatham, Max Roach, and the Nicholas Brothers also appeared on the bill. [53] [54] A performance with the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra directed by Erich Kunzel in August 1988 was recorded on video and features a classic presentation of "Minnie the Moocher", 57 years after he first recorded it. [55]

In January 1990, Calloway performed at the Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, with the Baltimore Symphony. [56] That year he made a cameo in Janet Jackson's music video "Alright". [2] [57] He continued to perform at Jazz festivals, including the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Greenwood Jazz. [58] [59] In 1992, he embarked on a month-long tour of European jazz festivals. [60] He was booked to headline "The Jazz Connection: The Jewish and African-American Relationship," at New York City's Avery Fisher Hall in 1993, but he pulled out due to a fall at home. [61]

Marriages and children Edit

In January 1927, Calloway had a daughter named Camay with Zelma Proctor, a fellow student. [62] [13] His daughter was one of the first African-Americans to teach in a white school in Virginia. [63] Calloway married his first wife Wenonah "Betty" Conacher in July 1928. [62] They adopted a daughter named Constance and later divorced in 1949. [64] Calloway married Zulme "Nuffie" MacNeal on October 7, 1949. They lived in Long Beach on the South Shore of Long Island, New York on the border with neighboring Lido Beach. In the 1950s, Calloway moved his family to Westchester County, New York, where he and Nuffie raised their daughters Chris Calloway (1945– 2008), [65] Cecilia "Lael" Eulalia Calloway, [66] and Cabella Calloway (b. 1952).

Legal issues Edit

In December 1945, Calloway and his friend Felix H. Payne Jr. were beaten by a police officer, William E. Todd, and arrested in Kansas City, Missouri after attempting to visit bandleader Lionel Hampton at the whites-only Pla-Mor Ballroom. They were taken to the hospital for injuries, then charged with intoxication and resisting arrest. When Hampton learned of the incident he refused to continue the concert. [67] Todd said he was informed by the manager who didn't recognize Calloway that they were attempting to enter. He claimed they refused to leave and struck him. Calloway and Payne denied his claims and maintained they had been sober the charges were dismissed. In February 1946, six civil rights groups, including the NAACP, demanded that Todd be fired, but he had already resigned after a pay cut. [68]

In 1952, Calloway was arrested in Leesburg, Virginia on his way to the race track in Charles Town, West Virginia. He was charged with speeding and attempted bribery of a policeman. [69]

On June 12, 1994, Calloway suffered a stroke at his home in Westchester County, New York. [56] He died five months later from pneumonia on November 18, 1994, at age 86, at a nursing home in Hockessin, Delaware. [21] He was survived by his wife, five daughters, and seven grandsons. [12] [2]

Music critics have written of his influence on later generations of entertainers such as James Brown, Michael Jackson, Janet Jackson, as well as modern-day hip-hop performers. [70] [1] John Landis, who directed Calloway in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers, stated, "Cab Calloway is hip-hop." [10] Journalist Timothy White noted in Billboard (August 14, 1993): "No living pathfinder in American popular music or its jazz and rock 'n' roll capillaries is so frequently emulated yet so seldom acknowledged as Cabell "Cab" Calloway. He arguably did more things first and better than any other band leader of his generation." [18]

In 1998, The Cab Calloway Orchestra directed by Calloway's grandson Chris "CB" Calloway Brooks was formed. [71] [72] In 2009, Big Bad Voodoo Daddy released an album covering Calloway's music titled How Big Can You Get?: The Music of Cab Calloway. [73] In 2012, Calloway's legacy was celebrated in an episode of PBS's American Masters titled "Cab Calloway: Sketches". [10] [70] On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Cab Calloway among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. [74]

In 2019, plans were announced to demolish Calloway's boyhood home at 2216 Druid Hill Avenue in Baltimore, replacing the abandoned structure and the rest of that block with a park to be named Cab Calloway Legends Park in his honor. [75] [76] Family members and the National Trust for Historic Preservation advocated preservation of the house, however, as a significant artifact of African-American cultural heritage. Although the block is designated "historically significant" on the National Register of Historic Places, Baltimore City officials said at a hearing on July 9, 2019, that there is "extensive structural damage" to the Calloway house as well as adjacent ones. [77] The Commission on Historical and Architectural Preservation's executive director, however, said that properties in worse condition than the Calloway House have been restored with financial support from a city tax credit program. Maryland Governor Larry Hogan also urged that demolition of the Calloway House be forestalled for its potential preservation as a historic house museum akin to the Louis Armstrong House in New York. [4] [77] Design options for the planned Cab Calloway Square may include an archway from the facade (pictured) as part of the Square's entrance, it was proposed by architects working with Baltimore City and the Druid Heights Community Development Corporation, a Non-Profit community oriented group. [78] Despite the objections, the house was razed on September 5, 2020. [79]

Awards and honors Edit

In 1985, Town Supervisor Anthony F. Veteran issued a proclamation, declaring a ''Cab Calloway Day'' in Greenburgh, New York. [80]

In 1990, Calloway was presented with the Beacons in Jazz Award from The New School in New York City. New York City Mayor David Dinkins proclaimed the day "Cab Calloway Day". [81]

In 1992, the Cab Calloway School of the Arts was founded in Wilmington, Delaware.

In 1994, Calloway's daughter Camay Calloway Murphy founded the Cab Calloway Museum at Coppin State College in Baltimore, Maryland. [82] [10]


How to Water Orchids

The most common cause of death for orchids (and most houseplants) is usually overwatering. Instead of watering your plants on a strict schedule (every other day, or once a week, for example), pay attention to your orchid&aposs needs and how much water it uses. This can vary based on the humidity, light, air movement, and potting mix its roots are growing in.

The easy answer for when to water most orchids (including Phalaenopsis and Cattleya) is just before they go dry. It could be every few days or even every couple of weeks depending on the orchid species and the environment in your home. The potting medium you use plays an important role in how much water your orchid needs�rk dries out quickly, while moss soaks up water and holds onto it for a long time.

To tell if it&aposs time for a watering, stick your finger in the potting mix, then pull it out and rub your fingers together. You should easily be able to feel if there&aposs any moisture. If you don&apost feel any, it&aposs time to water your orchid, and if your fingers feel moist, check again another day. Over time, you&aposll start to develop a sense of how often your orchid usually needs water, and how conditions like seasonal changes can affect the frequency. You&aposll also start to develop a "feel" for how light the pot gets when the bark or moss is dry, which is another handy way to tell if your orchid needs a drink.

Watering is as simple as pouring water into the potting mix, and letting any excess drain through the bottom. Just make sure you pot your orchid in a container that has a drainage hole. It&aposs a lot more difficult to water plants in containers without drainage because the water can collect at the bottom, so if your pot doesn&apost have a hole (or a few), consider repotting or drilling one yourself.

Test Garden Tip: Sometimes you can find clear plastic pots for sale online ($15, Etsy) or at garden centers. When moss and bark are moist, you&aposll see the condensation on the inside of the pot. When it&aposs dry, you won&apost, and you&aposll know it&aposs time to water.


CrossEntropyLoss¶

This criterion combines LogSoftmax and NLLLoss in one single class.

It is useful when training a classification problem with C classes. If provided, the optional argument weight should be a 1D Tensor assigning weight to each of the classes. This is particularly useful when you have an unbalanced training set.

The input is expected to contain raw, unnormalized scores for each class.

The loss can be described as:

or in the case of the weight argument being specified:

The losses are averaged across observations for each minibatch. If the weight argument is specified then this is a weighted average:

Can also be used for higher dimension inputs, such as 2D images, by providing an input of size ( m i n i b a t c h , C , d 1 , d 2 , . . . , d K ) (minibatch, C, d_1, d_2, . d_K) ( miniba t c h , C , d 1 ​ , d 2 ​ , . , d K ​ ) with K ≥ 1 K geq 1 K ≥ 1 , where K K K is the number of dimensions, and a target of appropriate shape (see below).

weight (Tensor, optional) – a manual rescaling weight given to each class. If given, has to be a Tensor of size C

size_average (bool, optional) – Deprecated (see reduction ). By default, the losses are averaged over each loss element in the batch. Note that for some losses, there are multiple elements per sample. If the field size_average is set to False , the losses are instead summed for each minibatch. Ignored when reduce is False . Default: True

ignore_index (int, optional) – Specifies a target value that is ignored and does not contribute to the input gradient. When size_average is True , the loss is averaged over non-ignored targets.

reduce (bool, optional) – Deprecated (see reduction ). By default, the losses are averaged or summed over observations for each minibatch depending on size_average . When reduce is False , returns a loss per batch element instead and ignores size_average . Default: True

reduction (string, optional) – Specifies the reduction to apply to the output: 'none' | 'mean' | 'sum' . 'none' : no reduction will be applied, 'mean' : the weighted mean of the output is taken, 'sum' : the output will be summed. Note: size_average and reduce are in the process of being deprecated, and in the meantime, specifying either of those two args will override reduction . Default: 'mean'


What Paint to Use

For a single exterior door that has been primed you’ll need approximately one quart of paint. If you do not have a glass or storm door that stands between your door and the elements, you’ll want to make certain you use exterior paint. While you can choose any finish, glossy paints are typically preferred for doors and trim, because they stand out and highlight these architectural features.

They also tend to stand up to nicks and scrapes better than flat or eggshell paint, meaning they could last longer. The most important thing to note is whether you have a latex- or oil-based paint. This is especially important for touchups, as you never want to paint oil over latex paint or vice versa. The type of primer you use also needs to match the type of paint you use (latex or oil-based).


Contents

Etymology Edit

The term panpsychism (/panˈsʌɪkɪz(ə)m/,/pænˈsaɪ(ˌ)kɪz(ə)m/) comes from the Greek pan (πᾶν : "all, everything, whole") and psyche (ψυχή: "soul, mind"). [7] : 1 "Psyche" comes from the Greek word ψύχω (psukhō, "I blow") and may mean life, soul, mind, spirit, heart, or "life-breath". The use of "psyche" is controversial because it is synonymous with "soul", a term usually taken to refer to something supernatural more common terms now found in the literature include mind, mental properties, mental aspect, and experience.

Concept Edit

Panpsychism holds that mind or a mind-like aspect is a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of reality. [1] It is also described as a theory in which "the mind is a fundamental feature of the world which exists throughout the universe". [2] Panpsychists posit that the type of mentality we know through our own experience is present, in some form, in a wide range of natural bodies. [7] This notion has taken on a wide variety of forms. Some historical and non-Western panpsychists ascribe attributes such as life or spirits to all entities. [8] Contemporary academic proponents, however, hold that sentience or subjective experience is ubiquitous, while distinguishing these qualities from more complex human mental attributes. [8] They therefore ascribe a primitive form of mentality to entities at the fundamental level of physics but do not ascribe mentality to most aggregate things, such as rocks or buildings. [1] [9] [10]

Terminology Edit

The philosopher David Chalmers, who has explored panpsychism as a viable theory, distinguishes between microphenomenal experiences (the experiences of microphysical entities) and macrophenomenal experiences (the experiences of larger entities, such as humans). [11]

Philip Goff draws a distinction between panexperientialism and pancognitivism. In the form of panpsychism under discussion in the contemporary literature, conscious experience is present everywhere at a fundamental level, hence the term panexperientialism. Pancognitivism, by contrast, is the view that thought is present everywhere at a fundamental level—a view that had some historical advocates, but no present-day academic adherents. Contemporary panpsychists do not believe microphysical entities have complex mental states such as beliefs, desires, and fears. [1]

Originally, the term panexperientialism had a narrower meaning, having been coined by David Ray Griffin to refer specifically to the form of panpsychism used in process philosophy (see below). [8]

Antiquity Edit

Panpsychist views are a staple in pre-Socratic Greek philosophy. [4] According to Aristotle, Thales (c. 624 – 545 BCE), the first Greek philosopher, posited a theory which held "that everything is full of gods." [12] Thales believed that magnets demonstrated this. This has been interpreted as a panpsychist doctrine. [4] Other Greek thinkers associated with panpsychism include Anaxagoras (who saw the underlying principle or arche as nous or mind), Anaximenes (who saw the arche as pneuma or spirit) and Heraclitus (who said "The thinking faculty is common to all"). [8]

Plato argues for panpsychism in his Sophist, in which he writes that all things participate in the form of Being and that it must have a psychic aspect of mind and soul (psyche). [8] In the Philebus and Timaeus, Plato argues for the idea of a world soul or anima mundi. According to Plato:

This world is indeed a living being endowed with a soul and intelligence . a single visible living entity containing all other living entities, which by their nature are all related. [13]

Stoicism developed a cosmology that held that the natural world is infused with the divine fiery essence pneuma, directed by the universal intelligence logos. The relationship between beings' individual logos and the universal logos was a central concern of the Roman Stoic Marcus Aurelius. The metaphysics of Stoicism finds connections with Hellenistic philosophies such as Neoplatonism. Gnosticism also made use of the Platonic idea of anima mundi.

Renaissance Edit

After Emperor Justinian closed Plato's Academy in 529 CE, neoplatonism declined. Though there were mediaeval Christian thinkers, such as John Scotus Eriugena, who ventured what might be called panpsychism, it was not a dominant strain in Christian thought. But in the Italian Renaissance, it enjoyed something of a revival in the thought of figures such as Gerolamo Cardano, Bernardino Telesio, Francesco Patrizi, Giordano Bruno, and Tommaso Campanella. Cardano argued for the view that soul or anima was a fundamental part of the world, and Patrizi introduced the term panpsychism into philosophical vocabulary. According to Bruno, "There is nothing that does not possess a soul and that has no vital principle." [8] Platonist ideas resembling the anima mundi (world soul) also resurfaced in the work of esoteric thinkers such as Paracelsus, Robert Fludd, and Cornelius Agrippa.

Early modern period Edit

In the 17th century, two rationalists, Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, can be said to be panpsychists. [4] In Spinoza's monism, the one single infinite and eternal substance is "God, or Nature" (Deus sive Natura), which has the aspects of mind (thought) and matter (extension). Leibniz's view is that there are infinitely many absolutely simple mental substances called monads that make up the universe's fundamental structure. While it has been said that George Berkeley's idealist philosophy is also a form of panpsychism, [4] Berkeley rejected panpsychism and posited that the physical world exists only in the experiences minds have of it, while restricting minds to humans and certain other specific agents. [14]

19th century Edit

In the 19th century, panpsychism was at its zenith. Philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer, C.S. Peirce, Josiah Royce, William James, Eduard von Hartmann, F.C.S. Schiller, Ernst Haeckel and William Kingdon Clifford as well as psychologists such as Gustav Fechner, Wilhelm Wundt and Rudolf Hermann Lotze all promoted panpsychist ideas. [4]

Arthur Schopenhauer argued for a two-sided view of reality as both Will and Representation (Vorstellung). According to Schopenhauer, "All ostensible mind can be attributed to matter, but all matter can likewise be attributed to mind". [ citation needed ]

Josiah Royce, the leading American absolute idealist, held that reality is a "world self", a conscious being that comprises everything, though he didn't necessarily attribute mental properties to the smallest constituents of mentalistic "systems". The American pragmatist philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce espoused a sort of psycho-physical monism in which the universe is suffused with mind, which he associated with spontaneity and freedom. Following Pierce, William James also espoused a form of panpsychism. [15] In his lecture notes, James wrote:

Our only intelligible notion of an object in itself is that it should be an object for itself, and this lands us in panpsychism and a belief that our physical perceptions are effects on us of 'psychical' realities [8]

In 1893, Paul Carus proposed a philosophy similar to panpsychism, "panbiotism", according to which "everything is fraught with life it contains life it has the ability to live." [16] : 149 [17]

20th century Edit

In the 20th century, panpsychism's most significant proponent is arguably Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947). [4] Whitehead's ontology saw the basic nature of the world as made up of events and the process of their creation and extinction. These elementary events (which he called occasions) are in part mental. [4] According to Whitehead, "we should conceive mental operations as among the factors which make up the constitution of nature." [8]

Bertrand Russell's neutral monist views tended toward panpsychism. [8] The physicist Arthur Eddington also defended a form of panpsychism. [5] The psychologist Carl Jung, who is known for his idea of the collective unconscious, wrote that "psyche and matter are contained in one and the same world, and moreover are in continuous contact with one another", and that it was probable that "psyche and matter are two different aspects of one and the same thing". [18] [ better source needed ] The psychologists James Ward and Charles Augustus Strong also endorsed variants of panpsychism. [19] [16] : 158 [20]

The geneticist Sewall Wright endorsed a version of panpsychism. He believed that the birth of consciousness was not due to a mysterious property emerging at a certain level of the hierarchy of increasing material complexity, but rather an inherent property, implying the most elementary particles have these properties. [21]

Contemporary Edit

Panpsychism has recently seen a resurgence in the philosophy of mind, set into motion by Thomas Nagel's 1979 article "Panpsychism" [22] and further spurred by Galen Strawson's 2006 realistic monist article "Realistic Monism: Why Physicalism Entails Panpsychism." [23] [24] [25] Other recent proponents include American philosophers David Ray Griffin [1] and David Skrbina, [4] [16] British philosophers Gregg Rosenberg, [1] Timothy Sprigge, [1] and Philip Goff, [5] [26] and Canadian philosopher William Seager. [27] The British philosopher David Papineau, while distancing himself from orthodox panpsychists, has written that his view is "not unlike panpsychism" in that he rejects a line in nature between "events lit up by phenomenology [and] those that are mere darkness." [28] [29]

In 1990, the physicist David Bohm published "A new theory of the relationship of mind and matter," a paper based on his interpretation of quantum mechanics. [30] The philosopher Paavo Pylkkänen has described Bohm's view as a version of panprotopsychism. [31]

The integrated information theory of consciousness (IIT), proposed by the neuroscientist and psychiatrist Giulio Tononi in 2004 and since adopted by other neuroscientists such as Christof Koch, postulates that consciousness is widespread and can be found even in some simple systems. [32]

In 2019 cognitive scientist Donald Hoffman published The Case Against Reality: How evolution hid the truth from our eyes. Hoffman argues that consensus reality lacks concrete existence, and is nothing more than an evolved user-interface. He argues that the true nature of reality are abstract "conscious agents". [33] Science editor Annaka Harris argues that panpsychism is a viable theory in her 2019 book Conscious, though she stops short of fully endorsing it. [34] [35]

Panpsychism has been postulated by psychoanalyst Robin S. Brown as a means to theorizing relations between "inner" and "outer" tropes in the context of psychotherapy. [36] Panpsychism has also been applied in environmental philosophy by Australian philosopher Freya Mathews, [37] who has put forward the notion of ontopoetics as a version of panpsychism. [38]

Panpsychism encompasses many theories, united only by the notion that mind in some form is ubiquitous. [8]

Philosophical frameworks Edit

Cosmopsychism Edit

Cosmopsychism hypothesizes that the cosmos is a unified object that is ontologically prior to its parts. It has been described as an alternative to panpsychism, [39] or as a form of panpsychism. [40] Proponents of cosmopsychism claim that the cosmos as a whole is the fundamental level of reality and that it instantiates consciousness. They differ on that point from panpsychists, who usually claim that the smallest level of reality is fundamental and instantiates consciousness. Accordingly, human consciousness, for example, merely derives from a larger cosmic consciousness.

Panexperientialism Edit

Panexperientialism is associated with the philosophies of, among others, Charles Hartshorne and Alfred North Whitehead, although the term itself was invented by David Ray Griffin in order to distinguish the process philosophical view from other varieties of panpsychism. [8] Whitehead's process philosophy argues that the fundamental elements of the universe are "occasions of experience," which can together create something as complex as a human being. [4] Building off Whitehead's work, process philosopher Michel Weber argues for a pancreativism. [41] Goff has used the term panexperientialism more generally to refer to forms of panpsychism in which experience rather than thought is ubiquitous. [1]

Panprotopsychism Edit

Panprotopsychists believe that higher-order phenomenal properties (such as qualia) are logically entailed by protophenomenial properties, at least in principle. The combination problem thus holds no weight it is not phenomenal properties that are pervasive, but protophenomenal properties. And protophenomenal properties are by definition the constituent parts of consciousness. [9] Chalmers argues that the view faces difficulty in dealing with the combination problem. He considers Russell's proposed solution "ad hoc", and believes it diminishes the parsimony that made the theory initially interesting. [42]

Russellian monism Edit

Russellian monism is a type of neutral monism. [42] [43] The theory is attributed to Bertrand Russell, and may also be called Russell's panpsychism, or Russell's neutral monism. [9] [42] Russell believed that all causal properties are extrinsic manifestations of identical intrinsic properties. Russell called these identical internal properties quiddities. Just as the extrinsic properties of matter can form higher-order structure, so can their corresponding and identical quiddities. Russell believed the conscious mind was one such structure. [44] [9]

Religious or mystical ontologies Edit

Advaita Vedānta Edit

Advaita Vedānta is a form of idealism in Indian philosophy which views consensus reality as illusory. [45] Anand Vaidya and Purushottama Bilimoria have argued that it can be considered a form of panpsychism or cosmopsychism. [46]

Animism and hylozoism Edit

Animism maintains that all things have a soul, and hylozoism maintains that all things are alive. [8] Both could reasonably be interpreted as panpsychist, but both have fallen out of favour in contemporary academia. [8] Modern panpsychists have tried to distance themselves from theories of this sort, careful to carve out the distinction between the ubiquity of experience and the ubiquity of mind and cognition. [1] [11]

Buddha-nature Edit

Who, then, is "animate" and who "inanimate"? Within the assembly of the Lotus, all are present without division. In the case of grass, trees and the soil. whether they merely lift their feet or energetically traverse the long path, they will all reach Nirvana.

The term Buddha-nature is the English translation of the classical Chinese term 佛性 (or fó xìng in pinying), which is in turn a translation of the Sanskrit tathāgatagarbha. Tathāgata refers to someone (namely the Buddha) having arrived, while garbha translates into the words embryo or root. [49]

Broadly speaking, Buddha-nature can be defined as the ubiquitous dispositional state of being capable of obtaining Buddhahood. [50] [51] In some Buddhist traditions, this may be interpreted as implying a form of panpsychism. Graham Parks argues that most "traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean philosophy would qualify as panpsychist in nature." [47]

The Huayan, Tiantai, and Tendai schools of Buddhism explicitly attributed Buddha-nature to inanimate objects such as lotus flowers and mountains. [7] : 39 Similarly, Soto Zen master Dogen argued that "insentient beings expound" the teachings of the Buddha, and wrote about the "mind" (心,shin) of "fences, walls, tiles, and pebbles". The 9th-century Shingon Buddhist thinker Kukai went so far as to argue that natural objects such as rocks and stones are part of the supreme embodiment of the Buddha. According to Parks, Buddha-nature is best described "in western terms" as something "psychophysical." [47]

Scientific theories Edit

Conscious realism Edit

It is a natural and near-universal assumption that the world has the properties and causal structures that we perceive it to have to paraphrase Einstein's famous remark, we naturally assume that the moon is there whether anyone looks or not. Both theoretical and empirical considerations, however, increasingly indicate that this is not correct.

Conscious realism is a theory proposed by Donald Hoffman, a cognitive scientist specialising in perception. He has written numerous papers on the topic [52] which he summarised in his 2019 book The Case Against Reality: How evolution hid the truth from our eyes. [33] Conscious realism builds upon Hoffman's former User-Interface Theory. In combination they argue that (1) consensus reality and spacetime are illusory, and are merely a "species specific evolved user interface" (2) Reality is made of a complex, dimensionless, and timeless network of "conscious agents". [53]

The consensus view is that perception is a reconstruction of one's environment. Hoffman views perception as a construction rather than a reconstruction. He argues that perceptual systems are analogous to information channels, and thus subject to data compression. The set of possible representations for any given data set is quite large. Of that set, the subset that is homomorphic is minuscule, and does not overlap with the subset that is efficient or easiest to use. Hoffman offers the "fitness beats truth theorem" [54] as mathematical proof that perceptions of reality bear little resemblance to reality's true nature. [55]

Even if reality is an illusion, Hoffman takes consciousness as an indisputable fact. He represents rudimentary units of consciousness (which he calls "conscious agents") as Markovian kernels. Though the theory was not initially panpsychist, he reports that he and his colleague Chetan Prakash found the math to be more parsimonious if it were. [56] They hypothesize that reality is composed of these conscious agents, who interact to form "larger, more complex" networks. [57] [33]

Integrated information theory Edit

Giulio Tononi first articulated Integrated information theory (IIT) in 2004, [58] and it has undergone two major revisions since then. [59] [60] Tononi approaches consciousness from a scientific perspective, and has expressed frustration with philosophical theories of consciousness for lacking predictive power. [32] Though integral to his theory, he refrains from philosophical terminology such as qualia or the unity of consciousness, instead opting for mathematically precise alternatives like entropy function and information integration. [58] This has allowed Tononi to create a measurement for integrated information, which he calls phi (Φ). He believes consciousness is nothing but integrated information, so Φ measures consciousness. [61] As it turns out, even basic objects or substances have a nonzero degree of Φ. This would mean that consciousness is ubiquitous, albeit to a minimal degree. [62]

The philosopher Hedda Hassel Mørch's views IIT as similar to Russellian monism, [63] while other philosophers, such as Chalmers and John Searle, consider it a form of panpsychism. [64] [65] IIT does not hold that all systems are conscious, leading Tononi and Koch to state that IIT incorporates some elements of panpsychism but not others. [32] Koch has called IIT a "scientifically refined version" of panpsychism. [66]

Because panpsychism encompasses a wide range of theories, it can in principle be compatible with reductive materialism, dualism, functionalism, or other perspectives depending on the details of a given formulation. [8]

Dualism Edit

David Chalmers and Philip Goff have each described panpsychism as an alternative to both materialism and dualism. [9] [5] Chalmers says panpsychism respects the conclusions of both the causal argument against dualism and the conceivability argument for dualism. [9] Goff has argued that panpsychism avoids the disunity of dualism, under which mind and matter are ontologically separate, as well as dualism's problems explaining how mind and matter interact. [1] By contrast, Uwe Meixner argues that panpsychism has dualist forms, which he contrasts to idealist forms. [67]

Emergentism Edit

Panpsychism is incompatible with emergentism. [8] In general, theories of consciousness fall under one or the other umbrella they hold either that consciousness is present at a fundamental level of reality (panpsychism) or that it emerges higher up (emergentism). [8]

Idealism Edit

There is disagreement over whether idealism is a form of panpsychism or a separate view. Both views hold that everything that exists has some form of experience. [ citation needed ] According to the philosophers William Seager and Sean Allen-Hermanson, "idealists are panpsychists by default". [14] Charles Hartshorne contrasted panpsychism and idealism, saying that while idealists rejected the existence of the world observed with the senses or understood it as ideas within the mind of God, panpsychists accepted the reality of the world but saw it as composed of minds. [68] Chalmers also contrasts panpsychism with idealism (as well as materialism and dualism). [69] Meixner writes that formulations of panpsychism can be divided into dualist and idealist versions. [67] He further divides the latter into "atomistic idealistic panpsychism," which he ascribes to David Hume, and "holistic idealistic panpsychism," which he favors. [67]

Neutral monism Edit

Neutral monism rejects the dichotomy of mind and matter, instead taking a third substance as fundamental that is neither mental nor physical. Proposals for the nature of the third substance have varied, with some theorists choosing to leave it undefined. This has led to a variety of formulations of neutral monism, which may overlap with other philosophies. In versions of neutral monism in which the world's fundamental constituents are neither mental nor physical, it is quite distinct from panpsychism. In versions where the fundamental constituents are both mental and physical, neutral monism may lead to panpsychism, panprotopsychism, or dual aspect theory. [70]

In The Conscious Mind, David Chalmers writes that, in some instances, the differences between "Russell's neutral monism" and his property dualism are merely semantic. [42] Philip Goff believes that neutral monism can reasonably be regarded as a form of panpsychism "in so far as it is a dual aspect view." [1] Neutral monism, panpsychism, and dual aspect theory are grouped together or used interchangeably in some contexts. [42] [71] [6]

Physicalism and materialism Edit

Chalmers calls panpsychism an alternative to both materialism and dualism. [9] Similarly, Goff calls panpsychism an alternative to both physicalism and substance dualism. [5] Strawson, on the other hand, describes panpsychism as a form of physicalism, on his view the only viable form. [25] Panpsychism can be combined with reductive materialism but cannot be combined with eliminative materialism because the latter denies the existence of the relevant mental attributes. [8]

Hard problem of consciousness Edit

But what consciousness is, we know not and how it is that anything so remarkable as a state of consciousness comes about as the result of irritating nervous tissue, is just as unaccountable as the appearance of the Djin when Aladdin rubbed his lamp in the story, or as any other ultimate fact of nature.

It feels like something to be a human brain. [72] This means that matter, when organised in a particular way, begins to have an experience. The questions of why and how this material structure has experience, and why it has that particular experience rather than another experience, are known as the hard problem of consciousness. [6] The term is attributed to Chalmers. He argues that even after "all the perceptual and cognitive functions within the vicinity" of consciousness" are accounted for, "there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of these functions accompanied by experience?" [73] Though Chalmers gave the hard problem of consciousness its present name, similar views had been expressed before. Isaac Newton, [74] John Locke, [75] Gottfried Leibniz, [76] John Stuart Mill, [77] Thomas Henry Huxley, [78] Wilhelm Wundt, [4] all wrote about the seeming incompatibility of third-person functional descriptions of mind and matter and first-person conscious experience. Similar sentiments have been articulated through philosophical inquiries such as the problem of other minds, solipsism, the explanatory gap, philosophical zombies, and Mary's room. These problems have caused Chalmers to consider panpsychism a viable solution to the hard problem, [71] [9] [79] [ page needed ] though he is not committed to any single view. [71]

Brian Jonathan Garrett has compared the hard problem to vitalism, the now discredited hypothesis that life is inexplicable and can only be understood if some vital life force exists. He maintains that given time, consciousness and its evolutionary origins will be understood just as life is now understood. [80] Daniel Dennett has called the hard problem a "hunch," and maintains that conscious experience, as it is usually understood, is merely a complex cognitive illusion. [81] [82] Patricia Churchland, also an eliminative materialist, maintains that philosophers ought to be more patient: neuroscience is still in its early stages, so Chalmers's hard problem is premature. Clarity will come from learning more about the brain, not from metaphysical speculation. [83] [84]

Panpsychist solutions Edit

In The Conscious Mind (1996), Chalmers attempts to pinpoint why the hard problem is so hard. He concludes that consciousness is irreducible to lower-level physical facts, just as the fundamental laws of physics are irreducible to lower-level physical facts. Therefore, consciousness should be taken as fundamental in its own right and studied as such. Just as fundamental properties of reality are ubiquitous (even small objects have mass), consciousness may also be, though he considers that an open question. [42]

In Mortal Questions (1979), Thomas Nagel argues that panpsychism follows from four premises: [1] [24] : 181

  • P1: There is no spiritual plane or disembodied soul everything that exists is material.
  • P2: Consciousness is irreducible to lower-level physical properties.
  • P3: Consciousness exists.
  • P4: Higher-order properties of matter (i.e., emergent properties) can, at least in principle, be reduced to their lower-level properties.

Before the first premise is accepted, the range of possible explanations for consciousness is fully open. Each premise, if accepted, narrows down that range of possibilities. If the argument is sound, then by the last premise panpsychism is the only possibility left.

  • If (P1) is true, then either consciousness does not exist, or it exists within the physical world.
  • If (P2) is true, then either consciousness does not exist, or it (a) exists as distinct property of matter or (b) is fundamentally entailed by matter.
  • If (P3) is true, then consciousness exists, and is either (a) its own property of matter or (b) composed by the matter of the brain but not logically entailed by it.
  • If (P4) is true, then (b) is false, and consciousness must be its own unique property of matter.

Therefore, consciousness is its own unique property of matter and panpsychism is true. [24] : 187 [4]

The mind-body problem Edit

Dualism makes the problem insoluble materialism denies the existence of any phenomenon to study, and hence of any problem.

In 2015, Chalmers proposed a possible solution to the mind-body problem through the argumentative format of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. [9] The goal of such arguments is to argue for sides of a debate (the thesis and antithesis), weigh their vices and merits, and then reconcile them (the synthesis). Chalmers's thesis, antithesis, and synthesis are as follows:

  1. Thesis:materialism is true everything is fundamentally physical.
  2. Antithesis:dualism is true not everything is fundamentally physical.
  3. Synthesis: panpsychism is true.

(1) A centerpiece of Chalmers's argument is the physical world's causal closure. Newton's law of motion explains this phenomenon succinctly: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Cause and effect is a symmetrical process. There is no room for consciousness to exert any causal power on the physical world unless it is itself physical.

(2) On one hand, if consciousness is separate from the physical world then there is no room for it to exert any causal power on the world (a state of affairs philosophers call epiphenomenalism). If consciousness plays no causal role, then it is unclear how Chalmers could even write this paper. On the other hand, consciousness is irreducible to the physical processes of the brain.

(3) Panpsychism has all the benefits of materialism because it could mean that consciousness is physical while also escaping the grasp of epiphenomenalism. After some argumentation Chalmers narrows it down further to Russellian monism, concluding that thoughts, actions, intentions and emotions may just be the quiddities of neurotransmitters, neurons, and glial cells. [9]

The problem of substance Edit

Physics is mathematical, not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: it is only its mathematical properties that we can discover. For the rest our knowledge is negative.

Rather than solely trying to solve the problem of consciousness, Russell also attempted to solve the problem of substance, which is arguably a form of the problem of infinite regress. [ citation needed ]

(1) Like many sciences, physics describes the world through mathematics. Unlike other sciences, physics cannot describe what Schopenhauer called the "object that grounds" mathematics. [85] Economics is grounded in resources being allocated, and population dynamics is grounded in individual people within that population. The objects that ground physics, however, can be described only through more mathematics. [86] In Russell's words, physics describes "certain equations giving abstract properties of their changes." When it comes to describing "what it is that changes, and what it changes from and to—as to this, physics is silent." [44] In other words, physics describes matter's extrinsic properties, but not the intrinsic properties that ground them. [87]

(2) Russell argued that physics is mathematical because "it is only mathematical properties we can discover." This is true almost by definition: if only extrinsic properties are outwardly observable, then they will be the only ones discovered. [44] This led Alfred North Whitehead to conclude that intrinsic properties are "intrinsically unknowable." [4]

(3) Consciousness has many similarities to these intrinsic properties of physics. It, too, cannot be directly observed from an outside perspective. And it, too, seems to ground many observable extrinsic properties: presumably, music is enjoyable because of the experience of listening to it, and chronic pain is avoided because of the experience of pain, etc. Russell concluded that consciousness must be related to these extrinsic properties of matter. He called these intrinsic properties quiddities. Just as extrinsic physical properties can create structures, so can their corresponding and identical quiddites. The conscious mind, Russell argued, is one such structure. [44]

Proponents of panpsychism who use this line of reasoning include Chalmers, Annaka Harris, [88] [ page needed ] and Galen Strawson. Chalmers has argued that the extrinsic properties of physics must have corresponding intrinsic properties otherwise the universe would be "a giant causal flux" with nothing for "causation to relate", which he deems a logical impossibility. He sees consciousness as a promising candidate for that role. [42] [ page needed ] Galen Strawson calls Russell's panpsychism "realistic physicalism." He argues that "the experiential considered specifically as such" is what it means for something to be physical. Just as mass is energy, Strawson believes that consciousness "just is" matter. [89] : 7

Max Tegmark, theoretical physicist and creator of the mathematical universe hypothesis, disagrees with these conclusions. By his account, the universe is not just describable by math but is math comparing physics to economics or population dynamics is a disanalogy. While population dynamics may be grounded in individual people, those people are grounded in "purely mathematical objects" such as energy and charge. The universe is, in a fundamental sense, made of nothing. [86]

Quantum mechanics Edit

No one understands quantum mechanics.

In a 2018 interview, Chalmers called quantum mechanics "a magnet for anyone who wants to find room for crazy properties of the mind," but not entirely without warrant. [90] The relationship between observation (and, by extension, consciousness) and the wave-function collapse is known as the measurement problem. It seems that atoms, photons, etc. are in quantum superposition (which is to say, in many seemingly contradictory states or locations simultaneously) until measured in some way. This process is known as a wave-function collapse. According to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, one of the oldest interpretations and the most widely taught, [91] [92] it is the act of observation that collapses the wave-function. Erwin Schrödinger famously articulated the Copenhagen interpretation's unusual implications in the thought experiment now known as Schrödinger's cat. He imagines a box that contains a cat, a flask of poison, radioactive material, and a Geiger counter. The apparatus is configured so that when the Geiger counter detects radioactive decay, the flask will shatter, poisoning the cat. Unless and until the Geiger counter detects the radioactive decay of a single atom, the cat survives. The radioactive decay the Geiger counter detects is a quantum event each decay corresponds to a quantum state transition of a single atom of the radioactive material. According to Schrödinger's wave equation, until they are observed, quantum particles, including the atoms of the radioactive material, are in quantum state superposition each unmeasured atom in the radioactive material is in a quantum superposition of decayed and not decayed. This means that while the box remains sealed and its contents unobserved, the Geiger counter is also in a superposition of states of decay detected and no decay detected the vial is in a superposition of both shattered and not shattered and the cat in a superposition of dead and alive. But when the box is unsealed, the observer finds a cat that is either dead or alive there is no superposition of states. Since the cat is no longer in a superposition of states, then neither is the radioactive atom (nor the vial or the Geiger counter). Hence Schrödinger's wave function no longer holds and the wave function that described the atom—and its superposition of states—is said to have "collapsed": the atom now has only a single state, corresponding to the cat's observed state. But until an observer opens the box and thereby causes the wave function to collapse, the cat is both dead and alive. This has raised questions about, in John S. Bell's words, "where the observer begins and ends." [93]

The measurement problem has largely been characterised as the clash of classical physics and quantum mechanics. Bohm argued that it is rather a clash of classical physics, quantum mechanics, and phenomenology all three levels of description seem to be difficult to reconcile, or even contradictory. [31] Though not referring specifically to quantum mechanics, Chalmers has written that if a theory of everything is ever discovered, it will be a set of "psychophysical laws", rather than simply a set of physical laws. [42] With Chalmers as their inspiration, Bohm and Pylkkänen set out to do just that in their panprotopsychism. Chalmers, who is critical of the Copenhagen interpretation and most quantum theories of consciousness, has coined this "the Law of the Minimisation of Mystery." [73]

The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics does not take observation as central to the wave-function collapse, because it denies that the collapse happens. On the many-worlds interpretation, just as the cat is both dead and alive, the observer both sees a dead cat and sees a living cat. Even though observation does not play a central role in this case, questions about observation are still relevant to the discussion. In Roger Penrose's words:

I do not see why a conscious being need be aware of only "one" of the alternatives in a linear superposition. What is it about consciousnesses that says that consciousness must not be "aware" of that tantalising linear combination of both a dead and a live cat? It seems to me that a theory of consciousness would be needed for one to square the many world view with what one actually observes.

Chalmers believes the tentative variant of panpsychism outlined in The Conscious Mind (1996) does just that. Leaning toward the many-worlds interpretation due to its mathematical parsimony, he believes his variety of panpsychist property dualism may be the theory Penrose is seeking. Chalmers believes that information will play an integral role in any theory of consciousness because the mind and brain have corresponding informational structures. He considers the computational nature of physics further evidence of information's central role, and suggests that information that is physically realised is simultaneously phenomenally realised both regularities in nature and conscious experience are expressions of information's underlying character. The theory implies panpsychism, and also solves the problem Penrose poses. On Chalmers's formulation, information in any given position is phenomenally realised, whereas the informational state of the superposition as a whole is not. [79] [ page needed ] Panpsychist interpretations of quantum mechanics have been put forward by such philosophers as Whitehead, [4] Shan Gao, [94] Michael Lockwood, [4] and Hoffman, who is a cognitive scientist. [95] Protopanpsychist interpretations have been put forward by Bohm and Pylkkänen. [31]

Quantum theories of consciousness have yet to gain mainstream attention. Tegmark has formally calculated the "decoherence rates" of neurons, finding that the brain is a "classical rather than a quantum system" and that quantum mechanics does not relate "to consciousness in any fundamental way." [96]

In 2007, Steven Pinker criticized explanations of consciousness invoking quantum physics, saying: "to my ear, this amounts to the feeling that quantum mechanics sure is weird, and consciousness sure is weird, so maybe quantum mechanics can explain consciousness." [97]

Theoretical issues Edit

One criticism of panpsychism is that it cannot be empirically tested. [9] A corollary of this criticism is that panpsychism has no predictive power. Tononi and Koch write: "Besides claiming that matter and mind are one thing, [panpsychism] has little constructive to say and offers no positive laws explaining how the mind is organized and works." [32]

John Searle has alleged that panpsychism's unfalsifiability goes deeper than run-of-the-mill untestability: it is unfalsifiable because "it does not get up to the level of being false. It is strictly speaking meaningless because no clear notion has been given to the claim." [64] The need for coherence and clarification is accepted by David Skrbina, a proponent of panpsychism. [16] : 15

Many proponents of panpsychism base their arguments not on empirical support but on panpsychism's theoretical virtues. Chalmers says that while no direct evidence exists for the theory, neither is there direct evidence against it, and that "there are indirect reasons, of a broadly theoretical character, for taking the view seriously." [9] Notwithstanding Tononi and Koch's criticism of panpsychism, they state that it integrates consciousness into the physical world in a way that is "elegantly unitary." [32]

A related criticism is what seems to many to be the theory's bizarre nature. [9] Goff dismisses this objection: [1] though he admits that panpsychism is counterintuitive, he notes that Einstein's and Darwin's theories are also counterintuitive. "At the end of the day," he writes, "you should judge a view not for its cultural associations but by its explanatory power." [26]

Problem of mental causation Edit

Philosophers such as Chalmers have argued that theories of consciousness should be capable of providing insight into the brain and mind to avoid the problem of mental causation. [9] [98] If they fail to do that, the theory will succumb to epiphenomenalism, [98] a view commonly criticised as implausible or even self-contradictory. [79] [ page needed ] [99] [100] Proponents of panpsychism (especially those with neutral monist tendencies) hope to bypass this problem by dismissing it as a false dichotomy mind and matter are two sides of the same coin, and mental causation is merely the extrinsic description of intrinsic properties of mind. [101] Robert Howell has argued that all causal functions are still accounted for dispositionally (i.e., in terms of the behaviors described by science), leaving phenomenality causally inert. [102] He concludes, "This leaves us once again with epiphenomenal qualia, only in a very surprising place." [102] Neutral monists reject such dichotomous views of mind-body interaction. [101] [43]

Combination problem Edit

The combination problem (which is related to the binding problem) can be traced to William James, [11] but was given its present name by William Seager in 1995. [103] [11] The problem arises from the tension between the seemingly irreducible nature of consciousness and its ubiquity. If consciousness is ubiquitous, then every atom (or every bit, depending on the theory) has a minimal level of it. How then, as Keith Frankish puts it, do these "tiny consciousnesses combine" to create larger conscious experiences such as "the twinge of pain" he feels in his knee? [104] This objection has garnered significant attention, [11] [104] [1] and many have attempted to answer it. [88] [105] None of the proposed answers has gained widespread acceptance. [11]


Creatinine Test

Your doctor may also order a creatinine test, which is another blood test that also checks your kidney health. This is because the BUN level by itself doesn’t always reveal much.

Continued

When your BUN levels are compared with your creatinine levels, it gives a fuller picture of what’s happening with your kidneys. This is known as the BUN/Creatinine ratio.

Creatinine is a waste product from your muscles that is also filtered by your kidneys. Like BUN, high levels of creatinine could mean there is a lot of waste product that hasn’t been removed by the kidneys.

The ideal ratio of BUN to creatinine falls between 10-to-1 and 20-to-1.

Having a ratio above this range could mean you may not be getting enough blood flow to your kidneys, and could have conditions such as congestive heart failure, dehydration, or gastrointestinal bleeding.


Cost To Convert Deck, Porch, or Patio to Sunroom

Converting a deck, porch, or patio into a sunroom costs $4,000 to $70,000, depending on the size and if it's going to be a 3 or 4-season room. A 3-season sunroom, also called a patio enclosure or screened-in porch, is the cheapest, while a 4-season room costs the same as a home addition.

Cost To Convert Deck, Porch, or Patio to Sunroom
Conversion Average Cost
Deck or Patio into Sunroom $8,000 &ndash $30,000
3-Season Room To 4-Season $3,000 &ndash $20,000
3-Season Room To Living Space $20,000 &ndash $80,000
Screened Porch To Sunroom $4,000 &ndash $20,000

Convert Deck or Patio into Sunroom Cost

Converting a deck into a 3-season sunroom or patio enclosure costs $8,000 to $30,000. Leveling and reinforcing the surface are required to meet building code requirements. Pouring a new concrete patio costs $4 to $12 per square foot, while building a new deck costs $15 to $30 per square foot.

Cost To Convert 3-Season Room To 4-Season

Converting a 3-season room into a 4-season costs $3,000 to $20,000, which may include new windows, insulation, HVAC extension, and pouring a concrete foundation. Converting a 3-season room into a regular room or living space addition costs $20,000 to $80,000 or from $100 to $300 per square foot.

A 3-season sunroom to living space area requires removing the old sunroom and building a new 4-season room that's integrated into the existing construction, roofline, and exterior of the home. In some cases, finishing a basement costs around the same, but provides a better ROI in terms of square footage.

Converting Screened Porch To Sunroom Cost

Converting a screened porch into a sunroom costs $4,000 to $20,000 or between $200 and $400 per linear foot. This conversion costs 30% more than converting the area to an enclosed patio. Additional costs apply for pouring a slab foundation and bringing the sunroom up to building code standards.

Converting Screened Porch To Sunroom Cost
Type Average Cost
Convert To 3-Season $4,000 &ndash $10,000
Convert To 4-Season $10,000 &ndash $20,000

*Extra costs may apply for permits, insulation, and extending the HVAC system.

Merely replacing the screens with glass picture windows costs $400 to $800 per window, which includes a stronger frame with more insulation. If the current window frames are in good shape, installing new window panes cost $150 to $400 each, depending on if they are single or double-pane.


Contents

Azura's Star or The Black Star

This reusable soul gem is awarded for completing "The Black Star" quest.

Azura's Star has the ability to trap white souls, or those of non-sentient creatures. These souls can be used for enchanting and for recharging previously-enchanted weapons.

The Black Star has the ability to trap white and black souls, or those of sentient beings, instead of only black souls. It functions like a Black Soul Gem which traps all souls up to the Grand level, in it.

Dawnbreaker

This One-Handed sword is awarded for completing "The Break of Dawn" quest.

Dawnbreaker sets enemies on fire, while also dealing more damage to undead like draugr and vampires and has a chance to make undead explode into blue flames upon death, which damages and causes nearby undead to flee, in the same sense as Bane of the Undead.

Ebony Blade

This Two-Handed sword is awarded for completing "The Whispering Door" quest.

The Ebony Blade absorbs 10 points of health from enemies per hit, but can be upgraded only by slaying friendly characters (such as a person whose favor has been completed).

For every two such characters killed the weapon increases in power, adding two to the strength of the absorb health, up to the maximum of 30. Due to coding errors, it levels up two-handed, but benefits from one-handed perks. This has been fixed with patch 1.9.

Ebony Mail

This piece of unique armor is awarded for completing "Boethiah's Calling" quest.

The Ebony Mail is a heavy armor cuirass that is enchanted with the muffle effect and inflicts 5 poison damage per second to nearby enemies. It also produces a shadowy effect while sneaking. This is the only piece of armor other than boots that has been known to be enchanted with muffle, making it very useful for upgrading Sneak.

Mace of Molag Bal

This unique one-handed weapon is awarded for completing "The House of Horrors" quest.

The weapon not only damages 25 points of stamina and magicka per hit, it also steals the soul of an enemy if they die within three seconds. Paired with Azura's Star or the Black Star, the Mace's enchantment can be self-sufficient.

Masque of Clavicus Vile

This unique Heavy Armor helm is awarded for completing "A Daedra's Best Friend" quest, but only if the Dragonborn chooses to give Vile his axe instead of using it to kill Barbas.

Masque of Clavicus Vile holds the following enchantments:

  • Prices are 20% better
  • Speech increased by 10 points
  • Magicka regenerates 5% faster

Mehrunes' Razor

This unique dagger is awarded for completing the "Pieces of the Past" quest.

Mehrunes' Razor's enchantment has a 1.98% chance to instantly kill any opponent, with the exception of Miraak and Karstaag .

Oghma Infinium

The Oghma Infinium is a powerful tome of knowledge that is awarded for completing the "Discerning the Transmundane."

When read, the Oghma Infinum will grant a permanent 5-point boost to all skills related to any one of the three major guardian constellations: the Warrior, the Mage, and the Thief.

Ring of Namira

This ring is awarded for completing "The Taste of Death" quest.

The Ring of Namira grants the user with a 50-point Stamina boost and the bonus of feeding on corpses granting +50 health and +50% health regeneration.

Sanguine Rose

This unique staff is awarded for completing "A Night to Remember" quest.

The Sanguine Rose summons a leveled Dremora to fight for the wielder for sixty seconds.

Savior's Hide and/or Ring of Hircine

Either of these items is a potential reward for completing "Ill Met by Moonlight" quest, in a certain manner.

Savior's Hide is a unique light armor cuirass that may be obtained if Sinding is killed at the conclusion of the quest. It provides the following benefits

The Ring of Hircine may be obtained if Sinding is helped during the quest. Its enchantment grants the wearer unlimited werewolf transformations per day, assuming that the wearer is already a werewolf.

Skeleton Key

The Skeleton Key is the only Daedric Artifact known not to count for the achievement, Oblivion Walker. It is obtained during the Thieves Guild quest "Blindsighted."

The key is a decorative, unbreakable lockpick. It may be kept indefinitely so long as the player elects to delay progress any further in the Thieves Guild questline.

Skull of Corruption

This unique staff is awarded for completing the "Waking Nightmare" quest if Erandur is killed.

The Skull of Corruption deals 20 points of damage, but increases to 50 if powered with dreams collected from sleeping people. Casting the staff at them while sleeping will gather five dreams for the staff. Casting at a character while they are awake, however, will be treated as an attack.

The staff has a range of effect on it and also has a unique screen illusion when casting.

Spellbreaker

This unique shield is awarded for completing "The Only Cure" quest.

When blocking, it produces a Ward-like effect that protects the user from fifty points of magic damage. It does not, however, protect users against Dwarven steam attacks.

Volendrung

This unique warhammer is awarded for completing "The Cursed Tribe" quest in Largashbur.

Volendrung, also known as the Hammer of Might, absorbs fifty points of Stamina per hit. It is essentially a giant stamina sponge, as many two-handed weapons use a lot of stamina for their power attacks.

Wabbajack

This unique staff is awarded for completing "The Mind of Madness" quest.

The Wabbajack casts an unpredictable spell whose effect ranges from transforming enemies into other creatures to casting a random destruction spell to even fully healing enemies.


What are the differences between Orch OR and Hartley's vibratiuncles? - Psychology

What is the Law Enforcement Torch Run?

The Law Enforcement Torch Run® (LETR) is the largest public awareness vehicle and grass-roots fundraiser for Special Olympics. Known honorably as Guardians of the Flame, law enforcement members and Special Olympics athletes carry the “Flame of Hope” into the Opening Ceremony of local competitions, and into Special Olympics State, Provincial, National, Regional, and World Games. Annually, more than 109,000 dedicated and compassionate law enforcement members carry the “Flame of Hope,” symbolizing courage and celebration of diversity uniting communities around the globe.

The man behind the first Torch Run in 1981 was Wichita, Kansas Police Chief Richard LaMunyon. He conceived the Torch Run as a way to involve local law enforcement personnel in the community and to support Special Olympics. The Torch Run was quickly adopted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) now recognized as the founding law enforcement organization for the Law Enforcement Torch Run for Special Olympics.

Today, the Torch Run is more than just a run and encompasses a variety of fundraising vehicles such as T-shirt and merchandise sales, special events to include polar bear plunges, Tip-a-Cop and building sits, and a host of other events that have local, state, and national appeal. The Law Enforcement Torch Run transforms communities by inspiring people to open their minds, to accept and include people with intellectual disabilities, celebrating differences among all people. recognizing and respecting the similarities we all share. For athletes and officers alike, the Law Enforcement Torch Run for Special Olympics is a story of success, love, respect, and commitment between law enforcement officers and Special Olympic athletes.

The Law Enforcement Torch Run in Connecticut

In 1986, Connecticut had its first Torch Run with a few legs converging onto the campus of the University of Connecticut at Storrs. The run then became a statewide event involving several more cities and towns. Since its inception, the Connecticut Law Enforcement Torch Run has grown into the largest grassroots fund-raising event for Special Olympics Connecticut.

Click HERE to visit the Connecticut Law Enforcement Torch Run web portal for more info.

Connecticut Participation at a Glance

  • 1,500 active and retired law enforcement
  • Over 90 active municipal departments
  • 18 Department of Correction facilities
  • Military police and Federal employees (IRS, FBI, DOD, etc.)
  • Connecticut State Police
  • College & University Public Safety

Follow us on social media @CTLETR.

Be sure to check out photos from events year-round by visiting our Smug Mug album HERE .


How to Water Orchids

The most common cause of death for orchids (and most houseplants) is usually overwatering. Instead of watering your plants on a strict schedule (every other day, or once a week, for example), pay attention to your orchid&aposs needs and how much water it uses. This can vary based on the humidity, light, air movement, and potting mix its roots are growing in.

The easy answer for when to water most orchids (including Phalaenopsis and Cattleya) is just before they go dry. It could be every few days or even every couple of weeks depending on the orchid species and the environment in your home. The potting medium you use plays an important role in how much water your orchid needs�rk dries out quickly, while moss soaks up water and holds onto it for a long time.

To tell if it&aposs time for a watering, stick your finger in the potting mix, then pull it out and rub your fingers together. You should easily be able to feel if there&aposs any moisture. If you don&apost feel any, it&aposs time to water your orchid, and if your fingers feel moist, check again another day. Over time, you&aposll start to develop a sense of how often your orchid usually needs water, and how conditions like seasonal changes can affect the frequency. You&aposll also start to develop a "feel" for how light the pot gets when the bark or moss is dry, which is another handy way to tell if your orchid needs a drink.

Watering is as simple as pouring water into the potting mix, and letting any excess drain through the bottom. Just make sure you pot your orchid in a container that has a drainage hole. It&aposs a lot more difficult to water plants in containers without drainage because the water can collect at the bottom, so if your pot doesn&apost have a hole (or a few), consider repotting or drilling one yourself.

Test Garden Tip: Sometimes you can find clear plastic pots for sale online ($15, Etsy) or at garden centers. When moss and bark are moist, you&aposll see the condensation on the inside of the pot. When it&aposs dry, you won&apost, and you&aposll know it&aposs time to water.


Contents

Calloway was born in Rochester, New York on Christmas Day in 1907 to an African American family. [7] His mother, Martha Eulalia Reed, was a Morgan State College graduate, teacher, and church organist. His father, Cabell Calloway Jr., graduated from Lincoln University of Pennsylvania in 1898, [8] [9] and worked as a lawyer and in real estate. The family moved to Baltimore, Maryland when Calloway was 11. [10] Soon after his father died and his mother remarried to John Nelson Fortune. [11]

Calloway grew up in the West Baltimore neighborhood of Druid Hill. He often skipped school to earn money by selling newspapers, shining shoes, and cooling down horses at the Pimlico racetrack where he developed an interest for racing and betting the horses. [12] [13] After he was caught playing dice on the church steps, his mother sent him to Downingtown Industrial and Agricultural School in 1921, a reform school run by his mother's uncle in Chester County, Pennsylvania. [13]

Calloway resumed hustling when he returned to Baltimore and worked as a caterer while he improved his studies in school. [13] He began private vocal lessons in 1922, and studied music throughout his formal schooling. Despite his parents' and teachers' disapproval of jazz, he began performing in nightclubs in Baltimore. His mentors included drummer Chick Webb and pianist Johnny Jones. Calloway joined his high school basketball team, and in his senior year he started playing professional basketball with the Baltimore Athenians, a team of the Negro Professional Basketball League. [14] He graduated from Frederick Douglass High School in 1925. [10] [15]

1927–1929: Early career Edit

In 1927, Calloway joined his older sister, Blanche Calloway, on tour for the popular black musical revue Plantation Days. [11] His sister became an accomplished bandleader before him, and he often credited her as his inspiration for entering show business. [16] Calloway's mother wanted him to be a lawyer like his father, so once the tour ended he enrolled at Crane College in Chicago, but he was more interested in singing and entertaining. While at Crane he turned down the opportunity to play basketball for the Harlem Globetrotters to pursue a singing career. [13]

Calloway spent most of his nights at Chicago's Dreamland Café, Sunset Cafe, and Club Berlin, performing as a singer, drummer, and master of ceremonies. [11] At Sunset Cafe, he was an understudy for singer Adelaide Hall. There he met and performed with Louis Armstrong, who taught him to sing in the scat style. He left school to sing with the Alabamians band. [17]

In 1929, Calloway relocated to New York with the band. They opened at the Savoy Ballroom on September 20, 1929, but they were not up to par with Cecil Scott's band. The Alabamians broke up and Armstrong recommended Calloway as a replacement singer in the musical revue Connie's Hot Chocolates. [11] He established himself as a vocalist singing "Ain't Misbehavin'" by Fats Waller. [18] While featured in the musical, The Missourians asked Calloway to front their band. [19]

1930–1955: Success Edit

In 1930, The Missourians became known as Cab Calloway and His Orchestra. At the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York, the band was hired in 1931 to substitute for the Duke Ellington Orchestra while they were on tour. Their popularity led to a permanent position. The band also performed twice a week for radio broadcasts on NBC. Calloway appeared on radio programs with Walter Winchell and Bing Crosby and was the first African American to have a nationally syndicated radio show. [4] During the depths of the Great Depression, Calloway was earning $50,000 a year at 23 years old. [18]

In 1931, Calloway recorded his most famous song, "Minnie the Moocher". It is the first single song by an African American to sell a million records. [4] "The Old Man of the Mountain", "St. James Infirmary Blues", and "Minnie the Moocher" were performed in three Betty Boop cartoons: Minnie the Moocher (1932), Snow White (1933), and The Old Man of the Mountain (1933). Calloway performed voice over for these cartoons, and through rotoscoping, his dance steps were the basis of the characters' movements. [20] He scheduled concerts in some communities to coincide with the release of the films to take advantage of the publicity.

As a result of the success of "Minnie the Moocher", Calloway became identified with its chorus, gaining the nickname "The Hi De Ho Man". [21] He performed in the 1930s in a series of short films for Paramount. Calloway's and Ellington's groups were featured on film more than any other jazz orchestras of the era. In these films, Calloway can be seen performing a gliding backstep dance move, which some observers have described as the precursor to Michael Jackson's moonwalk. Calloway said 50 years later, "it was called The Buzz back then." [22] The 1933 film International House featured Calloway performing his classic song, "Reefer Man", a tune about a man who smokes marijuana. [23] Fredi Washington was cast as Calloway's love interest in Cab Calloway's Hi-De-Ho (1934). [24] Lena Horne made her film debut as a dancer in Cab Calloway's Jitterbug Party (1935). [25]

Calloway made his first Hollywood feature film appearance opposite Al Jolson in The Singing Kid (1936). He sang several duets with Jolson, and the film included Calloway's band and cast of 22 Cotton Club dancers from New York. [26] According to film critic Arthur Knight, the creators of the film intended to "erase and celebrate boundaries and differences, including most emphatically the color line. when Calloway begins singing in his characteristic style – in which the words are tools for exploring rhythm and stretching melody – it becomes clear that American culture is changing around Jolson and with (and through) Calloway". [27] [28] : watch

Calloway's band recorded for Brunswick and the ARC dime store labels (Banner, Cameo, Conqueror, Perfect, Melotone, Banner, Oriole) from 1930 to 1932, when he signed with RCA Victor for a year. He returned to Brunswick in late 1934 through 1936, then with Variety, run by his manager, Irving Mills. He remained with Mills when the label collapsed during the Depression. Their sessions were continued by Vocalion through 1939 and OKeh through 1942. After an AFM recording ban due to the 1942–44 musicians' strike ended, Calloway continued to record.

In 1938, Calloway released, Cab Calloway's Cat-ologue: A "Hepster's" Dictionary, the first dictionary published by an African-American. It became the official jive language reference book of the New York Public Library. [29] A revised version of the book was released with Professor Cab Calloway’s Swingformation Bureau in 1939. He released the last edition, The New Cab Calloway’s Hepsters Dictionary: Language of Jive, in 1944. [30] On a BBC Radio documentary about the dictionary in 2014, Poet Lemn Sissay stated, "Cab Calloway was taking ownership of language for a people who, just a few generations before, had their own languages taken away." [31]

Calloway's band in the 1930s and 1940s included many notable musicians, such as Ben Webster, Illinois Jacquet, Milt Hinton, Danny Barker, Doc Cheatham, Ed Swayze, Cozy Cole, Eddie Barefield, and Dizzy Gillespie. Calloway later recalled, "What I expected from my musicians was what I was selling: the right notes with precision, because I would build a whole song around a scat or dance step." [18] Calloway and his band formed baseball and basketball teams. [32] [33] They played each other while on the road, play against local semi-pro teams, and play charity games. [34] His renown as a talented musician was such that, in the opening scene of the 1940 musical film, Strike Up the Band, starring Mickey Rooney and Judy Garland, Rooney's character is admonished by his music teacher, "You are not Cab Calloway", after playing an improvised drum riff in the middle of a band lesson.

In 1941, Calloway fired Gillespie from his orchestra after an onstage fracas erupted when Calloway was hit with spitballs. He wrongly accused Gillespie, who stabbed Calloway in the leg with a small knife. [35]

From 1941 to 1942, Calloway hosted a weekly radio quiz show called The Cab Calloway Quizzicale. [36] Calling himself "Doctor" Calloway, it was a parody of The College of Musical Knowledge, a radio contest created by bandleader Kay Kyser. [37] During the years of World War II, Calloway entertained troops in United States before they departed overseas. [38] The Calloway Orchestra also recorded songs full of social commentary including “Doing the Reactionary,” “The Führer’s Got the Jitters,” [39] “The Great Lie,” “We’ll Gather Lilacs,” and “My Lament for V Day.” [40]

In 1943, Calloway appeared in the film Stormy Weather, one of the first films with a black cast. [41] The film featured other top performers of the time, including Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, Lena Horne, The Nicholas Brothers, and Fats Waller. Calloway would host Horne's character Selina Rogers as she performed the film's title song as part of a big, all-star for World War II soldiers. [42]

Calloway wrote a humorous pseudo-gossip column called "Coastin' with Cab" for Song Hits magazine. It was a collection of celebrity snippets such as the following in the May 1946 issue: "Benny Goodman was dining at Ciro's steak house in New York when a very homely girl entered. 'If her face is her fortune,' Benny quipped, 'she'd be tax-free'." In the late 1940s, however, Calloway's bad financial decisions and his gambling caused his band to break up. [17]

In 1953, he played the prominent role of "Sportin' Life" in a production of Porgy and Bess with William Warfield and Leontyne Price as the title characters.

1956–1960: Cotton Club Revue Edit

Calloway and his daughter Lael recorded "Little Child", an adaption of "Little Boy and the Old Man". Released on ABC-Paramount, the single charted on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1956. [43] [3]

In 1956, Clarence Robinson, who produced revues at the original Cotton Club and the Apollo Theater, and choreographed the movie Stormy Weather, cast Calloway as the main attraction for his project in Miami. The Cotton Club of Miami featured a troupe of 48 people, including singer Sallie Blair, George Kirby, Abbey Lincoln, and the dance troupe of Norma Miller. The success of the shows led to the Cotton Club Revue of 1957 which had stops at the Royal Nevada Hotel in Las Vegas, the Theatre Under The Sky in Central Park, Town Casino in Buffalo.

For the second season, Lee Sherman was the choreographer of The Cotton Club Revue of 1958, which starred Calloway. The revue featured tap dancing prodigies Maurice Hines and Gregory Hines. [44]

In March 1958, Calloway released his album Cotton Club Revue of 1958 on Gone Records. It was produced by George Goldner, conducted and arranged by Eddie Barefield. That year, Calloway appeared in the film St. Louis Blues, the life story of W.C. Handy, featuring Nat King Cole and Eartha Kitt. [45]

The Cotton Club Revue of 1959 traveled to South America for engagements in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. They also stopped in Uruguay and Argentina before returning to North America which included a run on Broadway. [46] Directed by Mervyn Nelson and choreographed by Joel Nobel, this edition featured Ketty Lester, The Three Chocolateers. The revue toured Europe in 1959 and 1960, bringing their act to Madrid, Paris, and London.

1961–1993: Later years Edit

Calloway remained a household name due to TV appearances and occasional concerts in the US and Europe. In 1961 and 1962, he toured with the Harlem Globetrotters, providing halftime entertainment during games. [47] [48]

Calloway was cast as "Yeller" in the film The Cincinnati Kid (1965) with Steve McQueen, Ann-Margret, and Edward G. Robinson. Calloway appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show on March 19, 1967, with his daughter Chris Calloway. [49] In 1967, he co-starred with Pearl Bailey as Horace Vandergelder in an all-black cast of Hello, Dolly! on Broadway during its original run. Chris Calloway also joined the cast as Minnie Fay. [50] The new cast revived the flagging business for the show [51] and RCA Victor released a new cast recording, rare for the time. In 1973–74, Calloway was featured in an unsuccessful Broadway revival of The Pajama Game with Hal Linden and Barbara McNair.

His autobiography, Of Minnie the Moocher and Me was published in 1976. It included his complete Hepster's Dictionary as an appendix. In 1978, Calloway released a disco version of "Minnie the Moocher" on RCA which reached the Billboard R&B chart. [52] [3] Calloway was introduced to a new generation when he appeared in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers performing "Minnie the Moocher". [2]

In 1985, Calloway and his Orchestra appeared at The Ritz London Hotel where he was filmed for a 60-minute BBC TV show called The Cotton Club Comes to the Ritz. Adelaide Hall, Doc Cheatham, Max Roach, and the Nicholas Brothers also appeared on the bill. [53] [54] A performance with the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra directed by Erich Kunzel in August 1988 was recorded on video and features a classic presentation of "Minnie the Moocher", 57 years after he first recorded it. [55]

In January 1990, Calloway performed at the Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, with the Baltimore Symphony. [56] That year he made a cameo in Janet Jackson's music video "Alright". [2] [57] He continued to perform at Jazz festivals, including the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Greenwood Jazz. [58] [59] In 1992, he embarked on a month-long tour of European jazz festivals. [60] He was booked to headline "The Jazz Connection: The Jewish and African-American Relationship," at New York City's Avery Fisher Hall in 1993, but he pulled out due to a fall at home. [61]

Marriages and children Edit

In January 1927, Calloway had a daughter named Camay with Zelma Proctor, a fellow student. [62] [13] His daughter was one of the first African-Americans to teach in a white school in Virginia. [63] Calloway married his first wife Wenonah "Betty" Conacher in July 1928. [62] They adopted a daughter named Constance and later divorced in 1949. [64] Calloway married Zulme "Nuffie" MacNeal on October 7, 1949. They lived in Long Beach on the South Shore of Long Island, New York on the border with neighboring Lido Beach. In the 1950s, Calloway moved his family to Westchester County, New York, where he and Nuffie raised their daughters Chris Calloway (1945– 2008), [65] Cecilia "Lael" Eulalia Calloway, [66] and Cabella Calloway (b. 1952).

Legal issues Edit

In December 1945, Calloway and his friend Felix H. Payne Jr. were beaten by a police officer, William E. Todd, and arrested in Kansas City, Missouri after attempting to visit bandleader Lionel Hampton at the whites-only Pla-Mor Ballroom. They were taken to the hospital for injuries, then charged with intoxication and resisting arrest. When Hampton learned of the incident he refused to continue the concert. [67] Todd said he was informed by the manager who didn't recognize Calloway that they were attempting to enter. He claimed they refused to leave and struck him. Calloway and Payne denied his claims and maintained they had been sober the charges were dismissed. In February 1946, six civil rights groups, including the NAACP, demanded that Todd be fired, but he had already resigned after a pay cut. [68]

In 1952, Calloway was arrested in Leesburg, Virginia on his way to the race track in Charles Town, West Virginia. He was charged with speeding and attempted bribery of a policeman. [69]

On June 12, 1994, Calloway suffered a stroke at his home in Westchester County, New York. [56] He died five months later from pneumonia on November 18, 1994, at age 86, at a nursing home in Hockessin, Delaware. [21] He was survived by his wife, five daughters, and seven grandsons. [12] [2]

Music critics have written of his influence on later generations of entertainers such as James Brown, Michael Jackson, Janet Jackson, as well as modern-day hip-hop performers. [70] [1] John Landis, who directed Calloway in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers, stated, "Cab Calloway is hip-hop." [10] Journalist Timothy White noted in Billboard (August 14, 1993): "No living pathfinder in American popular music or its jazz and rock 'n' roll capillaries is so frequently emulated yet so seldom acknowledged as Cabell "Cab" Calloway. He arguably did more things first and better than any other band leader of his generation." [18]

In 1998, The Cab Calloway Orchestra directed by Calloway's grandson Chris "CB" Calloway Brooks was formed. [71] [72] In 2009, Big Bad Voodoo Daddy released an album covering Calloway's music titled How Big Can You Get?: The Music of Cab Calloway. [73] In 2012, Calloway's legacy was celebrated in an episode of PBS's American Masters titled "Cab Calloway: Sketches". [10] [70] On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Cab Calloway among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. [74]

In 2019, plans were announced to demolish Calloway's boyhood home at 2216 Druid Hill Avenue in Baltimore, replacing the abandoned structure and the rest of that block with a park to be named Cab Calloway Legends Park in his honor. [75] [76] Family members and the National Trust for Historic Preservation advocated preservation of the house, however, as a significant artifact of African-American cultural heritage. Although the block is designated "historically significant" on the National Register of Historic Places, Baltimore City officials said at a hearing on July 9, 2019, that there is "extensive structural damage" to the Calloway house as well as adjacent ones. [77] The Commission on Historical and Architectural Preservation's executive director, however, said that properties in worse condition than the Calloway House have been restored with financial support from a city tax credit program. Maryland Governor Larry Hogan also urged that demolition of the Calloway House be forestalled for its potential preservation as a historic house museum akin to the Louis Armstrong House in New York. [4] [77] Design options for the planned Cab Calloway Square may include an archway from the facade (pictured) as part of the Square's entrance, it was proposed by architects working with Baltimore City and the Druid Heights Community Development Corporation, a Non-Profit community oriented group. [78] Despite the objections, the house was razed on September 5, 2020. [79]

Awards and honors Edit

In 1985, Town Supervisor Anthony F. Veteran issued a proclamation, declaring a ''Cab Calloway Day'' in Greenburgh, New York. [80]

In 1990, Calloway was presented with the Beacons in Jazz Award from The New School in New York City. New York City Mayor David Dinkins proclaimed the day "Cab Calloway Day". [81]

In 1992, the Cab Calloway School of the Arts was founded in Wilmington, Delaware.

In 1994, Calloway's daughter Camay Calloway Murphy founded the Cab Calloway Museum at Coppin State College in Baltimore, Maryland. [82] [10]


Contents

Azura's Star or The Black Star

This reusable soul gem is awarded for completing "The Black Star" quest.

Azura's Star has the ability to trap white souls, or those of non-sentient creatures. These souls can be used for enchanting and for recharging previously-enchanted weapons.

The Black Star has the ability to trap white and black souls, or those of sentient beings, instead of only black souls. It functions like a Black Soul Gem which traps all souls up to the Grand level, in it.

Dawnbreaker

This One-Handed sword is awarded for completing "The Break of Dawn" quest.

Dawnbreaker sets enemies on fire, while also dealing more damage to undead like draugr and vampires and has a chance to make undead explode into blue flames upon death, which damages and causes nearby undead to flee, in the same sense as Bane of the Undead.

Ebony Blade

This Two-Handed sword is awarded for completing "The Whispering Door" quest.

The Ebony Blade absorbs 10 points of health from enemies per hit, but can be upgraded only by slaying friendly characters (such as a person whose favor has been completed).

For every two such characters killed the weapon increases in power, adding two to the strength of the absorb health, up to the maximum of 30. Due to coding errors, it levels up two-handed, but benefits from one-handed perks. This has been fixed with patch 1.9.

Ebony Mail

This piece of unique armor is awarded for completing "Boethiah's Calling" quest.

The Ebony Mail is a heavy armor cuirass that is enchanted with the muffle effect and inflicts 5 poison damage per second to nearby enemies. It also produces a shadowy effect while sneaking. This is the only piece of armor other than boots that has been known to be enchanted with muffle, making it very useful for upgrading Sneak.

Mace of Molag Bal

This unique one-handed weapon is awarded for completing "The House of Horrors" quest.

The weapon not only damages 25 points of stamina and magicka per hit, it also steals the soul of an enemy if they die within three seconds. Paired with Azura's Star or the Black Star, the Mace's enchantment can be self-sufficient.

Masque of Clavicus Vile

This unique Heavy Armor helm is awarded for completing "A Daedra's Best Friend" quest, but only if the Dragonborn chooses to give Vile his axe instead of using it to kill Barbas.

Masque of Clavicus Vile holds the following enchantments:

  • Prices are 20% better
  • Speech increased by 10 points
  • Magicka regenerates 5% faster

Mehrunes' Razor

This unique dagger is awarded for completing the "Pieces of the Past" quest.

Mehrunes' Razor's enchantment has a 1.98% chance to instantly kill any opponent, with the exception of Miraak and Karstaag .

Oghma Infinium

The Oghma Infinium is a powerful tome of knowledge that is awarded for completing the "Discerning the Transmundane."

When read, the Oghma Infinum will grant a permanent 5-point boost to all skills related to any one of the three major guardian constellations: the Warrior, the Mage, and the Thief.

Ring of Namira

This ring is awarded for completing "The Taste of Death" quest.

The Ring of Namira grants the user with a 50-point Stamina boost and the bonus of feeding on corpses granting +50 health and +50% health regeneration.

Sanguine Rose

This unique staff is awarded for completing "A Night to Remember" quest.

The Sanguine Rose summons a leveled Dremora to fight for the wielder for sixty seconds.

Savior's Hide and/or Ring of Hircine

Either of these items is a potential reward for completing "Ill Met by Moonlight" quest, in a certain manner.

Savior's Hide is a unique light armor cuirass that may be obtained if Sinding is killed at the conclusion of the quest. It provides the following benefits

The Ring of Hircine may be obtained if Sinding is helped during the quest. Its enchantment grants the wearer unlimited werewolf transformations per day, assuming that the wearer is already a werewolf.

Skeleton Key

The Skeleton Key is the only Daedric Artifact known not to count for the achievement, Oblivion Walker. It is obtained during the Thieves Guild quest "Blindsighted."

The key is a decorative, unbreakable lockpick. It may be kept indefinitely so long as the player elects to delay progress any further in the Thieves Guild questline.

Skull of Corruption

This unique staff is awarded for completing the "Waking Nightmare" quest if Erandur is killed.

The Skull of Corruption deals 20 points of damage, but increases to 50 if powered with dreams collected from sleeping people. Casting the staff at them while sleeping will gather five dreams for the staff. Casting at a character while they are awake, however, will be treated as an attack.

The staff has a range of effect on it and also has a unique screen illusion when casting.

Spellbreaker

This unique shield is awarded for completing "The Only Cure" quest.

When blocking, it produces a Ward-like effect that protects the user from fifty points of magic damage. It does not, however, protect users against Dwarven steam attacks.

Volendrung

This unique warhammer is awarded for completing "The Cursed Tribe" quest in Largashbur.

Volendrung, also known as the Hammer of Might, absorbs fifty points of Stamina per hit. It is essentially a giant stamina sponge, as many two-handed weapons use a lot of stamina for their power attacks.

Wabbajack

This unique staff is awarded for completing "The Mind of Madness" quest.

The Wabbajack casts an unpredictable spell whose effect ranges from transforming enemies into other creatures to casting a random destruction spell to even fully healing enemies.


What are the differences between Orch OR and Hartley's vibratiuncles? - Psychology

What is the Law Enforcement Torch Run?

The Law Enforcement Torch Run® (LETR) is the largest public awareness vehicle and grass-roots fundraiser for Special Olympics. Known honorably as Guardians of the Flame, law enforcement members and Special Olympics athletes carry the “Flame of Hope” into the Opening Ceremony of local competitions, and into Special Olympics State, Provincial, National, Regional, and World Games. Annually, more than 109,000 dedicated and compassionate law enforcement members carry the “Flame of Hope,” symbolizing courage and celebration of diversity uniting communities around the globe.

The man behind the first Torch Run in 1981 was Wichita, Kansas Police Chief Richard LaMunyon. He conceived the Torch Run as a way to involve local law enforcement personnel in the community and to support Special Olympics. The Torch Run was quickly adopted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) now recognized as the founding law enforcement organization for the Law Enforcement Torch Run for Special Olympics.

Today, the Torch Run is more than just a run and encompasses a variety of fundraising vehicles such as T-shirt and merchandise sales, special events to include polar bear plunges, Tip-a-Cop and building sits, and a host of other events that have local, state, and national appeal. The Law Enforcement Torch Run transforms communities by inspiring people to open their minds, to accept and include people with intellectual disabilities, celebrating differences among all people. recognizing and respecting the similarities we all share. For athletes and officers alike, the Law Enforcement Torch Run for Special Olympics is a story of success, love, respect, and commitment between law enforcement officers and Special Olympic athletes.

The Law Enforcement Torch Run in Connecticut

In 1986, Connecticut had its first Torch Run with a few legs converging onto the campus of the University of Connecticut at Storrs. The run then became a statewide event involving several more cities and towns. Since its inception, the Connecticut Law Enforcement Torch Run has grown into the largest grassroots fund-raising event for Special Olympics Connecticut.

Click HERE to visit the Connecticut Law Enforcement Torch Run web portal for more info.

Connecticut Participation at a Glance

  • 1,500 active and retired law enforcement
  • Over 90 active municipal departments
  • 18 Department of Correction facilities
  • Military police and Federal employees (IRS, FBI, DOD, etc.)
  • Connecticut State Police
  • College & University Public Safety

Follow us on social media @CTLETR.

Be sure to check out photos from events year-round by visiting our Smug Mug album HERE .


Cost To Convert Deck, Porch, or Patio to Sunroom

Converting a deck, porch, or patio into a sunroom costs $4,000 to $70,000, depending on the size and if it's going to be a 3 or 4-season room. A 3-season sunroom, also called a patio enclosure or screened-in porch, is the cheapest, while a 4-season room costs the same as a home addition.

Cost To Convert Deck, Porch, or Patio to Sunroom
Conversion Average Cost
Deck or Patio into Sunroom $8,000 &ndash $30,000
3-Season Room To 4-Season $3,000 &ndash $20,000
3-Season Room To Living Space $20,000 &ndash $80,000
Screened Porch To Sunroom $4,000 &ndash $20,000

Convert Deck or Patio into Sunroom Cost

Converting a deck into a 3-season sunroom or patio enclosure costs $8,000 to $30,000. Leveling and reinforcing the surface are required to meet building code requirements. Pouring a new concrete patio costs $4 to $12 per square foot, while building a new deck costs $15 to $30 per square foot.

Cost To Convert 3-Season Room To 4-Season

Converting a 3-season room into a 4-season costs $3,000 to $20,000, which may include new windows, insulation, HVAC extension, and pouring a concrete foundation. Converting a 3-season room into a regular room or living space addition costs $20,000 to $80,000 or from $100 to $300 per square foot.

A 3-season sunroom to living space area requires removing the old sunroom and building a new 4-season room that's integrated into the existing construction, roofline, and exterior of the home. In some cases, finishing a basement costs around the same, but provides a better ROI in terms of square footage.

Converting Screened Porch To Sunroom Cost

Converting a screened porch into a sunroom costs $4,000 to $20,000 or between $200 and $400 per linear foot. This conversion costs 30% more than converting the area to an enclosed patio. Additional costs apply for pouring a slab foundation and bringing the sunroom up to building code standards.

Converting Screened Porch To Sunroom Cost
Type Average Cost
Convert To 3-Season $4,000 &ndash $10,000
Convert To 4-Season $10,000 &ndash $20,000

*Extra costs may apply for permits, insulation, and extending the HVAC system.

Merely replacing the screens with glass picture windows costs $400 to $800 per window, which includes a stronger frame with more insulation. If the current window frames are in good shape, installing new window panes cost $150 to $400 each, depending on if they are single or double-pane.


Creatinine Test

Your doctor may also order a creatinine test, which is another blood test that also checks your kidney health. This is because the BUN level by itself doesn’t always reveal much.

Continued

When your BUN levels are compared with your creatinine levels, it gives a fuller picture of what’s happening with your kidneys. This is known as the BUN/Creatinine ratio.

Creatinine is a waste product from your muscles that is also filtered by your kidneys. Like BUN, high levels of creatinine could mean there is a lot of waste product that hasn’t been removed by the kidneys.

The ideal ratio of BUN to creatinine falls between 10-to-1 and 20-to-1.

Having a ratio above this range could mean you may not be getting enough blood flow to your kidneys, and could have conditions such as congestive heart failure, dehydration, or gastrointestinal bleeding.


What Paint to Use

For a single exterior door that has been primed you’ll need approximately one quart of paint. If you do not have a glass or storm door that stands between your door and the elements, you’ll want to make certain you use exterior paint. While you can choose any finish, glossy paints are typically preferred for doors and trim, because they stand out and highlight these architectural features.

They also tend to stand up to nicks and scrapes better than flat or eggshell paint, meaning they could last longer. The most important thing to note is whether you have a latex- or oil-based paint. This is especially important for touchups, as you never want to paint oil over latex paint or vice versa. The type of primer you use also needs to match the type of paint you use (latex or oil-based).


Contents

Etymology Edit

The term panpsychism (/panˈsʌɪkɪz(ə)m/,/pænˈsaɪ(ˌ)kɪz(ə)m/) comes from the Greek pan (πᾶν : "all, everything, whole") and psyche (ψυχή: "soul, mind"). [7] : 1 "Psyche" comes from the Greek word ψύχω (psukhō, "I blow") and may mean life, soul, mind, spirit, heart, or "life-breath". The use of "psyche" is controversial because it is synonymous with "soul", a term usually taken to refer to something supernatural more common terms now found in the literature include mind, mental properties, mental aspect, and experience.

Concept Edit

Panpsychism holds that mind or a mind-like aspect is a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of reality. [1] It is also described as a theory in which "the mind is a fundamental feature of the world which exists throughout the universe". [2] Panpsychists posit that the type of mentality we know through our own experience is present, in some form, in a wide range of natural bodies. [7] This notion has taken on a wide variety of forms. Some historical and non-Western panpsychists ascribe attributes such as life or spirits to all entities. [8] Contemporary academic proponents, however, hold that sentience or subjective experience is ubiquitous, while distinguishing these qualities from more complex human mental attributes. [8] They therefore ascribe a primitive form of mentality to entities at the fundamental level of physics but do not ascribe mentality to most aggregate things, such as rocks or buildings. [1] [9] [10]

Terminology Edit

The philosopher David Chalmers, who has explored panpsychism as a viable theory, distinguishes between microphenomenal experiences (the experiences of microphysical entities) and macrophenomenal experiences (the experiences of larger entities, such as humans). [11]

Philip Goff draws a distinction between panexperientialism and pancognitivism. In the form of panpsychism under discussion in the contemporary literature, conscious experience is present everywhere at a fundamental level, hence the term panexperientialism. Pancognitivism, by contrast, is the view that thought is present everywhere at a fundamental level—a view that had some historical advocates, but no present-day academic adherents. Contemporary panpsychists do not believe microphysical entities have complex mental states such as beliefs, desires, and fears. [1]

Originally, the term panexperientialism had a narrower meaning, having been coined by David Ray Griffin to refer specifically to the form of panpsychism used in process philosophy (see below). [8]

Antiquity Edit

Panpsychist views are a staple in pre-Socratic Greek philosophy. [4] According to Aristotle, Thales (c. 624 – 545 BCE), the first Greek philosopher, posited a theory which held "that everything is full of gods." [12] Thales believed that magnets demonstrated this. This has been interpreted as a panpsychist doctrine. [4] Other Greek thinkers associated with panpsychism include Anaxagoras (who saw the underlying principle or arche as nous or mind), Anaximenes (who saw the arche as pneuma or spirit) and Heraclitus (who said "The thinking faculty is common to all"). [8]

Plato argues for panpsychism in his Sophist, in which he writes that all things participate in the form of Being and that it must have a psychic aspect of mind and soul (psyche). [8] In the Philebus and Timaeus, Plato argues for the idea of a world soul or anima mundi. According to Plato:

This world is indeed a living being endowed with a soul and intelligence . a single visible living entity containing all other living entities, which by their nature are all related. [13]

Stoicism developed a cosmology that held that the natural world is infused with the divine fiery essence pneuma, directed by the universal intelligence logos. The relationship between beings' individual logos and the universal logos was a central concern of the Roman Stoic Marcus Aurelius. The metaphysics of Stoicism finds connections with Hellenistic philosophies such as Neoplatonism. Gnosticism also made use of the Platonic idea of anima mundi.

Renaissance Edit

After Emperor Justinian closed Plato's Academy in 529 CE, neoplatonism declined. Though there were mediaeval Christian thinkers, such as John Scotus Eriugena, who ventured what might be called panpsychism, it was not a dominant strain in Christian thought. But in the Italian Renaissance, it enjoyed something of a revival in the thought of figures such as Gerolamo Cardano, Bernardino Telesio, Francesco Patrizi, Giordano Bruno, and Tommaso Campanella. Cardano argued for the view that soul or anima was a fundamental part of the world, and Patrizi introduced the term panpsychism into philosophical vocabulary. According to Bruno, "There is nothing that does not possess a soul and that has no vital principle." [8] Platonist ideas resembling the anima mundi (world soul) also resurfaced in the work of esoteric thinkers such as Paracelsus, Robert Fludd, and Cornelius Agrippa.

Early modern period Edit

In the 17th century, two rationalists, Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, can be said to be panpsychists. [4] In Spinoza's monism, the one single infinite and eternal substance is "God, or Nature" (Deus sive Natura), which has the aspects of mind (thought) and matter (extension). Leibniz's view is that there are infinitely many absolutely simple mental substances called monads that make up the universe's fundamental structure. While it has been said that George Berkeley's idealist philosophy is also a form of panpsychism, [4] Berkeley rejected panpsychism and posited that the physical world exists only in the experiences minds have of it, while restricting minds to humans and certain other specific agents. [14]

19th century Edit

In the 19th century, panpsychism was at its zenith. Philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer, C.S. Peirce, Josiah Royce, William James, Eduard von Hartmann, F.C.S. Schiller, Ernst Haeckel and William Kingdon Clifford as well as psychologists such as Gustav Fechner, Wilhelm Wundt and Rudolf Hermann Lotze all promoted panpsychist ideas. [4]

Arthur Schopenhauer argued for a two-sided view of reality as both Will and Representation (Vorstellung). According to Schopenhauer, "All ostensible mind can be attributed to matter, but all matter can likewise be attributed to mind". [ citation needed ]

Josiah Royce, the leading American absolute idealist, held that reality is a "world self", a conscious being that comprises everything, though he didn't necessarily attribute mental properties to the smallest constituents of mentalistic "systems". The American pragmatist philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce espoused a sort of psycho-physical monism in which the universe is suffused with mind, which he associated with spontaneity and freedom. Following Pierce, William James also espoused a form of panpsychism. [15] In his lecture notes, James wrote:

Our only intelligible notion of an object in itself is that it should be an object for itself, and this lands us in panpsychism and a belief that our physical perceptions are effects on us of 'psychical' realities [8]

In 1893, Paul Carus proposed a philosophy similar to panpsychism, "panbiotism", according to which "everything is fraught with life it contains life it has the ability to live." [16] : 149 [17]

20th century Edit

In the 20th century, panpsychism's most significant proponent is arguably Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947). [4] Whitehead's ontology saw the basic nature of the world as made up of events and the process of their creation and extinction. These elementary events (which he called occasions) are in part mental. [4] According to Whitehead, "we should conceive mental operations as among the factors which make up the constitution of nature." [8]

Bertrand Russell's neutral monist views tended toward panpsychism. [8] The physicist Arthur Eddington also defended a form of panpsychism. [5] The psychologist Carl Jung, who is known for his idea of the collective unconscious, wrote that "psyche and matter are contained in one and the same world, and moreover are in continuous contact with one another", and that it was probable that "psyche and matter are two different aspects of one and the same thing". [18] [ better source needed ] The psychologists James Ward and Charles Augustus Strong also endorsed variants of panpsychism. [19] [16] : 158 [20]

The geneticist Sewall Wright endorsed a version of panpsychism. He believed that the birth of consciousness was not due to a mysterious property emerging at a certain level of the hierarchy of increasing material complexity, but rather an inherent property, implying the most elementary particles have these properties. [21]

Contemporary Edit

Panpsychism has recently seen a resurgence in the philosophy of mind, set into motion by Thomas Nagel's 1979 article "Panpsychism" [22] and further spurred by Galen Strawson's 2006 realistic monist article "Realistic Monism: Why Physicalism Entails Panpsychism." [23] [24] [25] Other recent proponents include American philosophers David Ray Griffin [1] and David Skrbina, [4] [16] British philosophers Gregg Rosenberg, [1] Timothy Sprigge, [1] and Philip Goff, [5] [26] and Canadian philosopher William Seager. [27] The British philosopher David Papineau, while distancing himself from orthodox panpsychists, has written that his view is "not unlike panpsychism" in that he rejects a line in nature between "events lit up by phenomenology [and] those that are mere darkness." [28] [29]

In 1990, the physicist David Bohm published "A new theory of the relationship of mind and matter," a paper based on his interpretation of quantum mechanics. [30] The philosopher Paavo Pylkkänen has described Bohm's view as a version of panprotopsychism. [31]

The integrated information theory of consciousness (IIT), proposed by the neuroscientist and psychiatrist Giulio Tononi in 2004 and since adopted by other neuroscientists such as Christof Koch, postulates that consciousness is widespread and can be found even in some simple systems. [32]

In 2019 cognitive scientist Donald Hoffman published The Case Against Reality: How evolution hid the truth from our eyes. Hoffman argues that consensus reality lacks concrete existence, and is nothing more than an evolved user-interface. He argues that the true nature of reality are abstract "conscious agents". [33] Science editor Annaka Harris argues that panpsychism is a viable theory in her 2019 book Conscious, though she stops short of fully endorsing it. [34] [35]

Panpsychism has been postulated by psychoanalyst Robin S. Brown as a means to theorizing relations between "inner" and "outer" tropes in the context of psychotherapy. [36] Panpsychism has also been applied in environmental philosophy by Australian philosopher Freya Mathews, [37] who has put forward the notion of ontopoetics as a version of panpsychism. [38]

Panpsychism encompasses many theories, united only by the notion that mind in some form is ubiquitous. [8]

Philosophical frameworks Edit

Cosmopsychism Edit

Cosmopsychism hypothesizes that the cosmos is a unified object that is ontologically prior to its parts. It has been described as an alternative to panpsychism, [39] or as a form of panpsychism. [40] Proponents of cosmopsychism claim that the cosmos as a whole is the fundamental level of reality and that it instantiates consciousness. They differ on that point from panpsychists, who usually claim that the smallest level of reality is fundamental and instantiates consciousness. Accordingly, human consciousness, for example, merely derives from a larger cosmic consciousness.

Panexperientialism Edit

Panexperientialism is associated with the philosophies of, among others, Charles Hartshorne and Alfred North Whitehead, although the term itself was invented by David Ray Griffin in order to distinguish the process philosophical view from other varieties of panpsychism. [8] Whitehead's process philosophy argues that the fundamental elements of the universe are "occasions of experience," which can together create something as complex as a human being. [4] Building off Whitehead's work, process philosopher Michel Weber argues for a pancreativism. [41] Goff has used the term panexperientialism more generally to refer to forms of panpsychism in which experience rather than thought is ubiquitous. [1]

Panprotopsychism Edit

Panprotopsychists believe that higher-order phenomenal properties (such as qualia) are logically entailed by protophenomenial properties, at least in principle. The combination problem thus holds no weight it is not phenomenal properties that are pervasive, but protophenomenal properties. And protophenomenal properties are by definition the constituent parts of consciousness. [9] Chalmers argues that the view faces difficulty in dealing with the combination problem. He considers Russell's proposed solution "ad hoc", and believes it diminishes the parsimony that made the theory initially interesting. [42]

Russellian monism Edit

Russellian monism is a type of neutral monism. [42] [43] The theory is attributed to Bertrand Russell, and may also be called Russell's panpsychism, or Russell's neutral monism. [9] [42] Russell believed that all causal properties are extrinsic manifestations of identical intrinsic properties. Russell called these identical internal properties quiddities. Just as the extrinsic properties of matter can form higher-order structure, so can their corresponding and identical quiddities. Russell believed the conscious mind was one such structure. [44] [9]

Religious or mystical ontologies Edit

Advaita Vedānta Edit

Advaita Vedānta is a form of idealism in Indian philosophy which views consensus reality as illusory. [45] Anand Vaidya and Purushottama Bilimoria have argued that it can be considered a form of panpsychism or cosmopsychism. [46]

Animism and hylozoism Edit

Animism maintains that all things have a soul, and hylozoism maintains that all things are alive. [8] Both could reasonably be interpreted as panpsychist, but both have fallen out of favour in contemporary academia. [8] Modern panpsychists have tried to distance themselves from theories of this sort, careful to carve out the distinction between the ubiquity of experience and the ubiquity of mind and cognition. [1] [11]

Buddha-nature Edit

Who, then, is "animate" and who "inanimate"? Within the assembly of the Lotus, all are present without division. In the case of grass, trees and the soil. whether they merely lift their feet or energetically traverse the long path, they will all reach Nirvana.

The term Buddha-nature is the English translation of the classical Chinese term 佛性 (or fó xìng in pinying), which is in turn a translation of the Sanskrit tathāgatagarbha. Tathāgata refers to someone (namely the Buddha) having arrived, while garbha translates into the words embryo or root. [49]

Broadly speaking, Buddha-nature can be defined as the ubiquitous dispositional state of being capable of obtaining Buddhahood. [50] [51] In some Buddhist traditions, this may be interpreted as implying a form of panpsychism. Graham Parks argues that most "traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean philosophy would qualify as panpsychist in nature." [47]

The Huayan, Tiantai, and Tendai schools of Buddhism explicitly attributed Buddha-nature to inanimate objects such as lotus flowers and mountains. [7] : 39 Similarly, Soto Zen master Dogen argued that "insentient beings expound" the teachings of the Buddha, and wrote about the "mind" (心,shin) of "fences, walls, tiles, and pebbles". The 9th-century Shingon Buddhist thinker Kukai went so far as to argue that natural objects such as rocks and stones are part of the supreme embodiment of the Buddha. According to Parks, Buddha-nature is best described "in western terms" as something "psychophysical." [47]

Scientific theories Edit

Conscious realism Edit

It is a natural and near-universal assumption that the world has the properties and causal structures that we perceive it to have to paraphrase Einstein's famous remark, we naturally assume that the moon is there whether anyone looks or not. Both theoretical and empirical considerations, however, increasingly indicate that this is not correct.

Conscious realism is a theory proposed by Donald Hoffman, a cognitive scientist specialising in perception. He has written numerous papers on the topic [52] which he summarised in his 2019 book The Case Against Reality: How evolution hid the truth from our eyes. [33] Conscious realism builds upon Hoffman's former User-Interface Theory. In combination they argue that (1) consensus reality and spacetime are illusory, and are merely a "species specific evolved user interface" (2) Reality is made of a complex, dimensionless, and timeless network of "conscious agents". [53]

The consensus view is that perception is a reconstruction of one's environment. Hoffman views perception as a construction rather than a reconstruction. He argues that perceptual systems are analogous to information channels, and thus subject to data compression. The set of possible representations for any given data set is quite large. Of that set, the subset that is homomorphic is minuscule, and does not overlap with the subset that is efficient or easiest to use. Hoffman offers the "fitness beats truth theorem" [54] as mathematical proof that perceptions of reality bear little resemblance to reality's true nature. [55]

Even if reality is an illusion, Hoffman takes consciousness as an indisputable fact. He represents rudimentary units of consciousness (which he calls "conscious agents") as Markovian kernels. Though the theory was not initially panpsychist, he reports that he and his colleague Chetan Prakash found the math to be more parsimonious if it were. [56] They hypothesize that reality is composed of these conscious agents, who interact to form "larger, more complex" networks. [57] [33]

Integrated information theory Edit

Giulio Tononi first articulated Integrated information theory (IIT) in 2004, [58] and it has undergone two major revisions since then. [59] [60] Tononi approaches consciousness from a scientific perspective, and has expressed frustration with philosophical theories of consciousness for lacking predictive power. [32] Though integral to his theory, he refrains from philosophical terminology such as qualia or the unity of consciousness, instead opting for mathematically precise alternatives like entropy function and information integration. [58] This has allowed Tononi to create a measurement for integrated information, which he calls phi (Φ). He believes consciousness is nothing but integrated information, so Φ measures consciousness. [61] As it turns out, even basic objects or substances have a nonzero degree of Φ. This would mean that consciousness is ubiquitous, albeit to a minimal degree. [62]

The philosopher Hedda Hassel Mørch's views IIT as similar to Russellian monism, [63] while other philosophers, such as Chalmers and John Searle, consider it a form of panpsychism. [64] [65] IIT does not hold that all systems are conscious, leading Tononi and Koch to state that IIT incorporates some elements of panpsychism but not others. [32] Koch has called IIT a "scientifically refined version" of panpsychism. [66]

Because panpsychism encompasses a wide range of theories, it can in principle be compatible with reductive materialism, dualism, functionalism, or other perspectives depending on the details of a given formulation. [8]

Dualism Edit

David Chalmers and Philip Goff have each described panpsychism as an alternative to both materialism and dualism. [9] [5] Chalmers says panpsychism respects the conclusions of both the causal argument against dualism and the conceivability argument for dualism. [9] Goff has argued that panpsychism avoids the disunity of dualism, under which mind and matter are ontologically separate, as well as dualism's problems explaining how mind and matter interact. [1] By contrast, Uwe Meixner argues that panpsychism has dualist forms, which he contrasts to idealist forms. [67]

Emergentism Edit

Panpsychism is incompatible with emergentism. [8] In general, theories of consciousness fall under one or the other umbrella they hold either that consciousness is present at a fundamental level of reality (panpsychism) or that it emerges higher up (emergentism). [8]

Idealism Edit

There is disagreement over whether idealism is a form of panpsychism or a separate view. Both views hold that everything that exists has some form of experience. [ citation needed ] According to the philosophers William Seager and Sean Allen-Hermanson, "idealists are panpsychists by default". [14] Charles Hartshorne contrasted panpsychism and idealism, saying that while idealists rejected the existence of the world observed with the senses or understood it as ideas within the mind of God, panpsychists accepted the reality of the world but saw it as composed of minds. [68] Chalmers also contrasts panpsychism with idealism (as well as materialism and dualism). [69] Meixner writes that formulations of panpsychism can be divided into dualist and idealist versions. [67] He further divides the latter into "atomistic idealistic panpsychism," which he ascribes to David Hume, and "holistic idealistic panpsychism," which he favors. [67]

Neutral monism Edit

Neutral monism rejects the dichotomy of mind and matter, instead taking a third substance as fundamental that is neither mental nor physical. Proposals for the nature of the third substance have varied, with some theorists choosing to leave it undefined. This has led to a variety of formulations of neutral monism, which may overlap with other philosophies. In versions of neutral monism in which the world's fundamental constituents are neither mental nor physical, it is quite distinct from panpsychism. In versions where the fundamental constituents are both mental and physical, neutral monism may lead to panpsychism, panprotopsychism, or dual aspect theory. [70]

In The Conscious Mind, David Chalmers writes that, in some instances, the differences between "Russell's neutral monism" and his property dualism are merely semantic. [42] Philip Goff believes that neutral monism can reasonably be regarded as a form of panpsychism "in so far as it is a dual aspect view." [1] Neutral monism, panpsychism, and dual aspect theory are grouped together or used interchangeably in some contexts. [42] [71] [6]

Physicalism and materialism Edit

Chalmers calls panpsychism an alternative to both materialism and dualism. [9] Similarly, Goff calls panpsychism an alternative to both physicalism and substance dualism. [5] Strawson, on the other hand, describes panpsychism as a form of physicalism, on his view the only viable form. [25] Panpsychism can be combined with reductive materialism but cannot be combined with eliminative materialism because the latter denies the existence of the relevant mental attributes. [8]

Hard problem of consciousness Edit

But what consciousness is, we know not and how it is that anything so remarkable as a state of consciousness comes about as the result of irritating nervous tissue, is just as unaccountable as the appearance of the Djin when Aladdin rubbed his lamp in the story, or as any other ultimate fact of nature.

It feels like something to be a human brain. [72] This means that matter, when organised in a particular way, begins to have an experience. The questions of why and how this material structure has experience, and why it has that particular experience rather than another experience, are known as the hard problem of consciousness. [6] The term is attributed to Chalmers. He argues that even after "all the perceptual and cognitive functions within the vicinity" of consciousness" are accounted for, "there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of these functions accompanied by experience?" [73] Though Chalmers gave the hard problem of consciousness its present name, similar views had been expressed before. Isaac Newton, [74] John Locke, [75] Gottfried Leibniz, [76] John Stuart Mill, [77] Thomas Henry Huxley, [78] Wilhelm Wundt, [4] all wrote about the seeming incompatibility of third-person functional descriptions of mind and matter and first-person conscious experience. Similar sentiments have been articulated through philosophical inquiries such as the problem of other minds, solipsism, the explanatory gap, philosophical zombies, and Mary's room. These problems have caused Chalmers to consider panpsychism a viable solution to the hard problem, [71] [9] [79] [ page needed ] though he is not committed to any single view. [71]

Brian Jonathan Garrett has compared the hard problem to vitalism, the now discredited hypothesis that life is inexplicable and can only be understood if some vital life force exists. He maintains that given time, consciousness and its evolutionary origins will be understood just as life is now understood. [80] Daniel Dennett has called the hard problem a "hunch," and maintains that conscious experience, as it is usually understood, is merely a complex cognitive illusion. [81] [82] Patricia Churchland, also an eliminative materialist, maintains that philosophers ought to be more patient: neuroscience is still in its early stages, so Chalmers's hard problem is premature. Clarity will come from learning more about the brain, not from metaphysical speculation. [83] [84]

Panpsychist solutions Edit

In The Conscious Mind (1996), Chalmers attempts to pinpoint why the hard problem is so hard. He concludes that consciousness is irreducible to lower-level physical facts, just as the fundamental laws of physics are irreducible to lower-level physical facts. Therefore, consciousness should be taken as fundamental in its own right and studied as such. Just as fundamental properties of reality are ubiquitous (even small objects have mass), consciousness may also be, though he considers that an open question. [42]

In Mortal Questions (1979), Thomas Nagel argues that panpsychism follows from four premises: [1] [24] : 181

  • P1: There is no spiritual plane or disembodied soul everything that exists is material.
  • P2: Consciousness is irreducible to lower-level physical properties.
  • P3: Consciousness exists.
  • P4: Higher-order properties of matter (i.e., emergent properties) can, at least in principle, be reduced to their lower-level properties.

Before the first premise is accepted, the range of possible explanations for consciousness is fully open. Each premise, if accepted, narrows down that range of possibilities. If the argument is sound, then by the last premise panpsychism is the only possibility left.

  • If (P1) is true, then either consciousness does not exist, or it exists within the physical world.
  • If (P2) is true, then either consciousness does not exist, or it (a) exists as distinct property of matter or (b) is fundamentally entailed by matter.
  • If (P3) is true, then consciousness exists, and is either (a) its own property of matter or (b) composed by the matter of the brain but not logically entailed by it.
  • If (P4) is true, then (b) is false, and consciousness must be its own unique property of matter.

Therefore, consciousness is its own unique property of matter and panpsychism is true. [24] : 187 [4]

The mind-body problem Edit

Dualism makes the problem insoluble materialism denies the existence of any phenomenon to study, and hence of any problem.

In 2015, Chalmers proposed a possible solution to the mind-body problem through the argumentative format of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. [9] The goal of such arguments is to argue for sides of a debate (the thesis and antithesis), weigh their vices and merits, and then reconcile them (the synthesis). Chalmers's thesis, antithesis, and synthesis are as follows:

  1. Thesis:materialism is true everything is fundamentally physical.
  2. Antithesis:dualism is true not everything is fundamentally physical.
  3. Synthesis: panpsychism is true.

(1) A centerpiece of Chalmers's argument is the physical world's causal closure. Newton's law of motion explains this phenomenon succinctly: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Cause and effect is a symmetrical process. There is no room for consciousness to exert any causal power on the physical world unless it is itself physical.

(2) On one hand, if consciousness is separate from the physical world then there is no room for it to exert any causal power on the world (a state of affairs philosophers call epiphenomenalism). If consciousness plays no causal role, then it is unclear how Chalmers could even write this paper. On the other hand, consciousness is irreducible to the physical processes of the brain.

(3) Panpsychism has all the benefits of materialism because it could mean that consciousness is physical while also escaping the grasp of epiphenomenalism. After some argumentation Chalmers narrows it down further to Russellian monism, concluding that thoughts, actions, intentions and emotions may just be the quiddities of neurotransmitters, neurons, and glial cells. [9]

The problem of substance Edit

Physics is mathematical, not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: it is only its mathematical properties that we can discover. For the rest our knowledge is negative.

Rather than solely trying to solve the problem of consciousness, Russell also attempted to solve the problem of substance, which is arguably a form of the problem of infinite regress. [ citation needed ]

(1) Like many sciences, physics describes the world through mathematics. Unlike other sciences, physics cannot describe what Schopenhauer called the "object that grounds" mathematics. [85] Economics is grounded in resources being allocated, and population dynamics is grounded in individual people within that population. The objects that ground physics, however, can be described only through more mathematics. [86] In Russell's words, physics describes "certain equations giving abstract properties of their changes." When it comes to describing "what it is that changes, and what it changes from and to—as to this, physics is silent." [44] In other words, physics describes matter's extrinsic properties, but not the intrinsic properties that ground them. [87]

(2) Russell argued that physics is mathematical because "it is only mathematical properties we can discover." This is true almost by definition: if only extrinsic properties are outwardly observable, then they will be the only ones discovered. [44] This led Alfred North Whitehead to conclude that intrinsic properties are "intrinsically unknowable." [4]

(3) Consciousness has many similarities to these intrinsic properties of physics. It, too, cannot be directly observed from an outside perspective. And it, too, seems to ground many observable extrinsic properties: presumably, music is enjoyable because of the experience of listening to it, and chronic pain is avoided because of the experience of pain, etc. Russell concluded that consciousness must be related to these extrinsic properties of matter. He called these intrinsic properties quiddities. Just as extrinsic physical properties can create structures, so can their corresponding and identical quiddites. The conscious mind, Russell argued, is one such structure. [44]

Proponents of panpsychism who use this line of reasoning include Chalmers, Annaka Harris, [88] [ page needed ] and Galen Strawson. Chalmers has argued that the extrinsic properties of physics must have corresponding intrinsic properties otherwise the universe would be "a giant causal flux" with nothing for "causation to relate", which he deems a logical impossibility. He sees consciousness as a promising candidate for that role. [42] [ page needed ] Galen Strawson calls Russell's panpsychism "realistic physicalism." He argues that "the experiential considered specifically as such" is what it means for something to be physical. Just as mass is energy, Strawson believes that consciousness "just is" matter. [89] : 7

Max Tegmark, theoretical physicist and creator of the mathematical universe hypothesis, disagrees with these conclusions. By his account, the universe is not just describable by math but is math comparing physics to economics or population dynamics is a disanalogy. While population dynamics may be grounded in individual people, those people are grounded in "purely mathematical objects" such as energy and charge. The universe is, in a fundamental sense, made of nothing. [86]

Quantum mechanics Edit

No one understands quantum mechanics.

In a 2018 interview, Chalmers called quantum mechanics "a magnet for anyone who wants to find room for crazy properties of the mind," but not entirely without warrant. [90] The relationship between observation (and, by extension, consciousness) and the wave-function collapse is known as the measurement problem. It seems that atoms, photons, etc. are in quantum superposition (which is to say, in many seemingly contradictory states or locations simultaneously) until measured in some way. This process is known as a wave-function collapse. According to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, one of the oldest interpretations and the most widely taught, [91] [92] it is the act of observation that collapses the wave-function. Erwin Schrödinger famously articulated the Copenhagen interpretation's unusual implications in the thought experiment now known as Schrödinger's cat. He imagines a box that contains a cat, a flask of poison, radioactive material, and a Geiger counter. The apparatus is configured so that when the Geiger counter detects radioactive decay, the flask will shatter, poisoning the cat. Unless and until the Geiger counter detects the radioactive decay of a single atom, the cat survives. The radioactive decay the Geiger counter detects is a quantum event each decay corresponds to a quantum state transition of a single atom of the radioactive material. According to Schrödinger's wave equation, until they are observed, quantum particles, including the atoms of the radioactive material, are in quantum state superposition each unmeasured atom in the radioactive material is in a quantum superposition of decayed and not decayed. This means that while the box remains sealed and its contents unobserved, the Geiger counter is also in a superposition of states of decay detected and no decay detected the vial is in a superposition of both shattered and not shattered and the cat in a superposition of dead and alive. But when the box is unsealed, the observer finds a cat that is either dead or alive there is no superposition of states. Since the cat is no longer in a superposition of states, then neither is the radioactive atom (nor the vial or the Geiger counter). Hence Schrödinger's wave function no longer holds and the wave function that described the atom—and its superposition of states—is said to have "collapsed": the atom now has only a single state, corresponding to the cat's observed state. But until an observer opens the box and thereby causes the wave function to collapse, the cat is both dead and alive. This has raised questions about, in John S. Bell's words, "where the observer begins and ends." [93]

The measurement problem has largely been characterised as the clash of classical physics and quantum mechanics. Bohm argued that it is rather a clash of classical physics, quantum mechanics, and phenomenology all three levels of description seem to be difficult to reconcile, or even contradictory. [31] Though not referring specifically to quantum mechanics, Chalmers has written that if a theory of everything is ever discovered, it will be a set of "psychophysical laws", rather than simply a set of physical laws. [42] With Chalmers as their inspiration, Bohm and Pylkkänen set out to do just that in their panprotopsychism. Chalmers, who is critical of the Copenhagen interpretation and most quantum theories of consciousness, has coined this "the Law of the Minimisation of Mystery." [73]

The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics does not take observation as central to the wave-function collapse, because it denies that the collapse happens. On the many-worlds interpretation, just as the cat is both dead and alive, the observer both sees a dead cat and sees a living cat. Even though observation does not play a central role in this case, questions about observation are still relevant to the discussion. In Roger Penrose's words:

I do not see why a conscious being need be aware of only "one" of the alternatives in a linear superposition. What is it about consciousnesses that says that consciousness must not be "aware" of that tantalising linear combination of both a dead and a live cat? It seems to me that a theory of consciousness would be needed for one to square the many world view with what one actually observes.

Chalmers believes the tentative variant of panpsychism outlined in The Conscious Mind (1996) does just that. Leaning toward the many-worlds interpretation due to its mathematical parsimony, he believes his variety of panpsychist property dualism may be the theory Penrose is seeking. Chalmers believes that information will play an integral role in any theory of consciousness because the mind and brain have corresponding informational structures. He considers the computational nature of physics further evidence of information's central role, and suggests that information that is physically realised is simultaneously phenomenally realised both regularities in nature and conscious experience are expressions of information's underlying character. The theory implies panpsychism, and also solves the problem Penrose poses. On Chalmers's formulation, information in any given position is phenomenally realised, whereas the informational state of the superposition as a whole is not. [79] [ page needed ] Panpsychist interpretations of quantum mechanics have been put forward by such philosophers as Whitehead, [4] Shan Gao, [94] Michael Lockwood, [4] and Hoffman, who is a cognitive scientist. [95] Protopanpsychist interpretations have been put forward by Bohm and Pylkkänen. [31]

Quantum theories of consciousness have yet to gain mainstream attention. Tegmark has formally calculated the "decoherence rates" of neurons, finding that the brain is a "classical rather than a quantum system" and that quantum mechanics does not relate "to consciousness in any fundamental way." [96]

In 2007, Steven Pinker criticized explanations of consciousness invoking quantum physics, saying: "to my ear, this amounts to the feeling that quantum mechanics sure is weird, and consciousness sure is weird, so maybe quantum mechanics can explain consciousness." [97]

Theoretical issues Edit

One criticism of panpsychism is that it cannot be empirically tested. [9] A corollary of this criticism is that panpsychism has no predictive power. Tononi and Koch write: "Besides claiming that matter and mind are one thing, [panpsychism] has little constructive to say and offers no positive laws explaining how the mind is organized and works." [32]

John Searle has alleged that panpsychism's unfalsifiability goes deeper than run-of-the-mill untestability: it is unfalsifiable because "it does not get up to the level of being false. It is strictly speaking meaningless because no clear notion has been given to the claim." [64] The need for coherence and clarification is accepted by David Skrbina, a proponent of panpsychism. [16] : 15

Many proponents of panpsychism base their arguments not on empirical support but on panpsychism's theoretical virtues. Chalmers says that while no direct evidence exists for the theory, neither is there direct evidence against it, and that "there are indirect reasons, of a broadly theoretical character, for taking the view seriously." [9] Notwithstanding Tononi and Koch's criticism of panpsychism, they state that it integrates consciousness into the physical world in a way that is "elegantly unitary." [32]

A related criticism is what seems to many to be the theory's bizarre nature. [9] Goff dismisses this objection: [1] though he admits that panpsychism is counterintuitive, he notes that Einstein's and Darwin's theories are also counterintuitive. "At the end of the day," he writes, "you should judge a view not for its cultural associations but by its explanatory power." [26]

Problem of mental causation Edit

Philosophers such as Chalmers have argued that theories of consciousness should be capable of providing insight into the brain and mind to avoid the problem of mental causation. [9] [98] If they fail to do that, the theory will succumb to epiphenomenalism, [98] a view commonly criticised as implausible or even self-contradictory. [79] [ page needed ] [99] [100] Proponents of panpsychism (especially those with neutral monist tendencies) hope to bypass this problem by dismissing it as a false dichotomy mind and matter are two sides of the same coin, and mental causation is merely the extrinsic description of intrinsic properties of mind. [101] Robert Howell has argued that all causal functions are still accounted for dispositionally (i.e., in terms of the behaviors described by science), leaving phenomenality causally inert. [102] He concludes, "This leaves us once again with epiphenomenal qualia, only in a very surprising place." [102] Neutral monists reject such dichotomous views of mind-body interaction. [101] [43]

Combination problem Edit

The combination problem (which is related to the binding problem) can be traced to William James, [11] but was given its present name by William Seager in 1995. [103] [11] The problem arises from the tension between the seemingly irreducible nature of consciousness and its ubiquity. If consciousness is ubiquitous, then every atom (or every bit, depending on the theory) has a minimal level of it. How then, as Keith Frankish puts it, do these "tiny consciousnesses combine" to create larger conscious experiences such as "the twinge of pain" he feels in his knee? [104] This objection has garnered significant attention, [11] [104] [1] and many have attempted to answer it. [88] [105] None of the proposed answers has gained widespread acceptance. [11]


CrossEntropyLoss¶

This criterion combines LogSoftmax and NLLLoss in one single class.

It is useful when training a classification problem with C classes. If provided, the optional argument weight should be a 1D Tensor assigning weight to each of the classes. This is particularly useful when you have an unbalanced training set.

The input is expected to contain raw, unnormalized scores for each class.

The loss can be described as:

or in the case of the weight argument being specified:

The losses are averaged across observations for each minibatch. If the weight argument is specified then this is a weighted average:

Can also be used for higher dimension inputs, such as 2D images, by providing an input of size ( m i n i b a t c h , C , d 1 , d 2 , . . . , d K ) (minibatch, C, d_1, d_2, . d_K) ( miniba t c h , C , d 1 ​ , d 2 ​ , . , d K ​ ) with K ≥ 1 K geq 1 K ≥ 1 , where K K K is the number of dimensions, and a target of appropriate shape (see below).

weight (Tensor, optional) – a manual rescaling weight given to each class. If given, has to be a Tensor of size C

size_average (bool, optional) – Deprecated (see reduction ). By default, the losses are averaged over each loss element in the batch. Note that for some losses, there are multiple elements per sample. If the field size_average is set to False , the losses are instead summed for each minibatch. Ignored when reduce is False . Default: True

ignore_index (int, optional) – Specifies a target value that is ignored and does not contribute to the input gradient. When size_average is True , the loss is averaged over non-ignored targets.

reduce (bool, optional) – Deprecated (see reduction ). By default, the losses are averaged or summed over observations for each minibatch depending on size_average . When reduce is False , returns a loss per batch element instead and ignores size_average . Default: True

reduction (string, optional) – Specifies the reduction to apply to the output: 'none' | 'mean' | 'sum' . 'none' : no reduction will be applied, 'mean' : the weighted mean of the output is taken, 'sum' : the output will be summed. Note: size_average and reduce are in the process of being deprecated, and in the meantime, specifying either of those two args will override reduction . Default: 'mean'


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